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Political betting odds intradermal melanocytic nevus single staffing in betting shops in spain

Political betting odds intradermal melanocytic nevus

The concentration difference of major elements in melanocytic skin with respect to pigmentation level is analysed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS to investigate the applicability of LIBS as an in situ feedback tool for selective and complete laser removal of melanocytic skin tissue like nevus.

The skin of black silkie chicken which had a characteristic darkly pigmented perifollicular skin surrounded by lightly pigmented extrafollicular skin was used as the sample. Plasma emission of biochemical elements generated with a laser irradiation on melanocytic skin lesion. KGaA, Weinheim.

Establishment and characterization of a normal melanocyte cell line derived from pig skin. Several minipig strains develop spontaneous malignant melanoma. As a first step toward the analysis of genes involved in the tumoral progression of melanoma in these animal models, we developed culture conditions for pig melanocytes whereby melanocytes from normal epidermis can be isolated directly onto mitotically inactivated keratinocytes in Eagle's minimal essential medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate TPA and cholera toxin.

We also derived an immortal line of pigmented melanocytes from the epidermis of a healthy Meishan pig. This cell line, designated PigMel, retains differentiation function in culture, dependence on TPA and cholera toxin and a diploid chromosome number. PigMel melanocytes exhibit morphological and molecular characteristics common to normal mammalian skin melanocytes. Isolating RNA from precursor and mature melanocytes from human vitiligo and normal skin using laser capture microdissection.

To characterize the gene expression profile of regenerated melanocytes in the narrow band UVB NBUVB -treated vitiligo epidermis and their precursors in the hair follicle, we present here a strategy of RNA isolation from in situ melanocytes using human frozen skin.

We developed a rapid immunostaining protocol using the NKI-beteb antibody, which labels differentiated and precursor melanocytes , followed by fluorescent laser capture microdissection. This technique enabled the direct isolation, from melanocyte and adjacent keratinocyte populations, of satisfactory quality RNA that was successfully amplified and analysed by qRT-PCR.

We found significantly higher expression of melanocyte -specific genes in the epidermis of NBUVB-treated vitiligo, as compared to the normal skin. When comparing bulge melanocyte samples from untreated vitiligo, NBUVB-treated vitiligo and normal skin , we did not find significant differences in the expression of melanocyte -specific genes or melanocytic stem cell genes. These techniques offer valuable opportunities to study melanocytes and their precursors in vitiligo and other pigmentation disorders.

In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images. Reflectance confocal microscopy RCM has been used for over 10 years for in vivo skin imaging. However, to date no standard RCM terminology has been published. To establish a glossary of terms for RCM evaluation of melanocytic lesions.

Reviewers evaluated RCM images for image quality, lesion architecture, and cellular details. Reviewers could utilize published descriptors or contribute unpublished terminology to describe lesion attributes.

An online meeting was conducted to reach consensus that integrates and defines existing and new RCM descriptive terms. We present a glossary with descriptors of image quality, normal skin morphology, lesion architecture, and cellular details for RCM evaluation of melanocytic lesions.

Usefulness of the glossary in RCM diagnosis of melanocytic lesions needs to be assessed. Standardization of terminology is important toward implementation of RCM in the clinical setting. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca Lama paco skins associated with different coat colors. Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT , has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes.

To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca lama paco , we cloned the full length coding sequence CDS of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of bp encodes a amino acid polypeptide. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus.

Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin , and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white.

These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis. All rights reserved. Organ culture of mammalian skin and the effects of ultraviolet light and testosterone on melanocyte morphology and function. Scrotal skin of black Long-Evans rats and human thigh skin were maintained in vitro as organ cultures for as long as 14 days, and examined histologically using the combined skin splitting and Dopa techniques.

With increased time in culture, scrotal melanocytes round up and there is an increase in epidermal pigmentation. Human skin behaves similarly; after eight days in vitro human melanocytes also become rounded, but remain strongly Dopa-positive. Cultured skin receiving both uvl and testosterone illustrates a synergistic effect. Electron microscopic examination of cultured rat skin shows the presence of large melanosome complexes in keratinocytes, much larger than those found in vivo.

Melanocytes appear to be active as they contain an extensive Golgi zone, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and melanosomes in various stages of formation. Dermis contained many dermal melanocytes and macrophages laden with melanosomes, correlating with the increased visible dermal pigmentation in vitro.

This uvl stimulation of melanocytes in our skin organ cultures contrasts with the lack of melanogenic stimulation found in melanoma cell cultures. Our findings suggest that the intact epidermal melanin unit may be necessary for uvl stimulation of melanocytes.

Ultrasonic melanocytic skin tumor thickness estimation is not always easy and is related to the experience of the clinician. In this article, we present an automated thickness measurement method based on time-frequency analysis of US radiofrequency signals. Radiofrequency signals were obtained with a single-element focused transducer fundamental frequency, 22 MHz; bandwidth, MHz. The radiofrequency data were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to make the tumor boundaries more noticeable.

The thicknesses of the tumors were evaluated by 3 different metrics: histologically measured Breslow thickness, manually measured US thickness, and automatically measured US thickness. The primary cilium is an organelle protruding from the cell body that senses external stimuli including chemical, mechanical, light, osmotic, fluid flow, and gravitational signals.

Skin is always exposed to the external environment and responds to external stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that primary cilia have an important role in skin. Ciliogenesis was reported to be involved in developmental processes in skin , such as keratinocyte differentiation and hair formation. However, the relation between skin pigmentation and primary cilia is largely unknown.

Here, we observed that increased melanogenesis in melanocytes treated with a melanogenic inducer was inhibited by a ciliogenesis inducer, cytochalasin D, and serum-free culture. However, these inhibitory effects disappeared in GLI2 knockdown cells. In addition, activation of sonic hedgehog SHH -smoothened Smo signaling pathway by a Smo agonist, SAG inhibited melanin synthesis in melanocytes and pigmentation in a human skin model.

On the contrary, an inhibitor of primary cilium formation, ciliobrevin A1, activated melanogenesis in melanocytes. These results suggest that skin pigmentation may be regulated partly by the induction of ciliogenesis through Smo-GLI2 signaling.

Excessive melanogenesis often causes unaesthetic hyperpigmentation. In this study, we demonstrated the significant whitening efficacy of Melasolv using various melanocytes and human skin equivalents as in vitro experimental systems. In human systems, Melasolv also clearly showed a whitening effect in NHMs and human skin equivalent, reflecting a decrease in melanin content. Our study showed that Melasolv clearly exerts a whitening effect on various melanocytes and human skin equivalent.

These results suggest the possibility that Melasolv can be used as a depigmentary agent to treat pigmentary disorders as well as an active ingredient in cosmetics to increase whitening efficacy. Karger AG, Basel. Automated analysis and classification of melanocytic tumor on skin whole slide images.

This paper presents a computer-aided technique for automated analysis and classification of melanocytic tumor on skin whole slide biopsy images. The proposed technique consists of four main modules. First, skin epidermis and dermis regions are segmented by a multi-resolution framework.

Next, epidermis analysis is performed, where a set of epidermis features reflecting nuclear morphologies and spatial distributions is computed. In parallel with epidermis analysis, dermis analysis is also performed, where dermal cell nuclei are segmented and a set of textural and cytological features are computed. Finally, the skin melanocytic image is classified into different categories such as melanoma, nevus or normal tissue by using a multi-class support vector machine mSVM with extracted epidermis and dermis features.

Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes. Narea, J. Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion.

Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes fme in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter. Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanoma and skin melanocytes in Grey horses. Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway, occurring in the vast majority of melanocytic neoplasms, has a pivotal role in melanoma development.

Different mechanisms underlie this activation in different tumour settings. The Grey phenotype in horses, caused by a 4. Here, we investigated the involvement of the ERK pathway in melanoma development in Grey horses. Importantly, we found high activation of the ERK pathway also in epidermal melanocytes , suggesting a general predisposition to melanomagenesis in these horses. These findings demonstrate that the presence of the intronic 4.

Cutaneous lasers and skin camouflage make-up: a useful alternative intervention for periorbital hairy congenital melanocytic naevus. Periorbital congenital melanocytic naevi can be very disfiguring and difficult to treat effectively. Although surgical excision and reconstruction is the most widely accepted treatment strategy, we describe a case in which cutaneous lasers treatment followed by the application of cosmetic skin camouflage make-up provided an alternative solution delivering a good cosmetic improvement.

The significance of spectrophotometric image analysis for diagnosis of the melanocytic skin tumours in association with their thickness. Cutaneous melanoma is a melanocytic skin tumour, which has very poor prognosis while it is highly resistant to treatment and tends to metastasize.

Thickness of melanoma is one of the most important biomarker for stage of disease, prognosis and surgery planning. In this study, we hypothesized that the analysis of spectrophotometric SIAscope images can provide the information about skin tumour thickness.

The intensity of blood displacement, "erythematous blush", collagen holes, intensity of collagen, dermal and epidermal melanin were estimated in SIAgraphs. Tumour thicknesses were evaluated non-invasively in ultrasound images before excision. The diagnosis and Breslow index of each tumour were evaluated during routine histological examination. Overall the sensitivity and specificity of SIAscopy observed in this study is The features of SIAgraphs individually are not enough specific for melanoma diagnosis with different thickness.

Promising results were observed for differentiation of melanocytic skin tumour, using all 6 SIAscopic features, which correspond to the distribution, location and concentration of skin chromophores. Multimode optical dermoscopy Skin Spect analysis for skin with melanocytic nevus.

Diffusely reflected photons are separated into collinear and cross-polarized image paths and images captured for each illumination wavelength. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells.

We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes , in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like via NES and SOX9. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy.

Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation THG is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors.

It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black HMB and cluster of differentiation 1a CD1a were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells LCs.

The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

The fibroblast-derived paracrine factor neuregulin-1 has a novel role in regulating the constitutive color and melanocyte function in human skin. Interactions between melanocytes and neighboring cells in the skin are important in regulating skin color in humans.

We recently demonstrated that the less pigmented and thicker skin on the palms and soles is regulated by underlying fibroblasts in those areas, specifically via a secreted factor DKK1 that modulates Wnt signaling. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dermal fibroblasts regulate the constitutive skin color of individuals ranging from very light to very dark.

We used microarray analysis to compare gene expression patterns in fibroblasts derived from lighter skin types compared to darker skin types, with a focus on secreted proteins. We identified a number of genes that differ dramatically in expression and, among the expressed proteins, neuregulin-1, which is secreted by fibroblasts derived from dark skin , effectively increases the pigmentation of melanocytes in tissue culture and in an artificial skin model and regulates their growth, suggesting that it is one of the major factors determining human skin color.

Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin -of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States.

We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin -of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation.

Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Published by Elsevier Inc. Plasma immunoreactive beta- melanocyte -stimulating hormone and skin pigmentation in chronic renal failure. Plasma immunoreactive beta- melanocyte stimulating hormone beta-MSH concentrations were greatly increased in patients with chronic renal failure.

There was no correlation between the severity of the renal failure or the degree of pigmentation and the plasma beta-MSH levels. There is accumulating evidence that interactions between epidermal melanocytes and stromal cells play an important role in the regulation of skin pigmentation.

In this study we established a pigmented dermo-epidermal skin model, melDESS, of human origin to investigate the effects of distinct stromal cells on melanogenesis. Its dermal compartment consists either of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, dermal fibroblasts Fbs , or a mixture of both cell types. These skin substitutes were transplanted for 5 weeks on the backs of immuno-incompetent rats and analyzed.

This caused decreased melanin synthesis and, consequently, greatly reduced pigmentation of melDESS. The conclusions are of utmost clinical relevance, namely that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells derived from the hypodermis fail to appropriately interact with epidermal melanocytes , thus preventing the sustainable restoration of the patient's native skin color in bioengineered skin grafts. Its incidence is estimated in melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis.

Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial.

On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. Learning reflectance confocal microscopy of melanocytic skin lesions through histopathologic transversal sections.

Histopathologic interpretation of dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy RCM features of cutaneous melanoma was timidly carried out using perpendicular histologic sections, which does not mimic the same plane of the image achieved at both techniques horizontal plane. The aim of this study was to describe the transverse histologic sections research technique and correlate main dermoscopic features characteristic of cutaneous melanoma atypical network, irregular globules and pseudopods with RCM and histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections in order to offer a more precise interpretation of in vivo detectable features.

Four melanomas and 2 nevi with different dermoscopic clues have been studied. Lesion areas that showed characteristic dermoscopic features were imaged by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy and directly correlated with histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections. We presented the possibility to perform transverse sections as a new approach to understand RCM features.

Atypical network showed different aspects in the 2 melanomas: in one case it was characterized by pleomorphic malignant melanocytes with tendency to form aggregates, whereas in the other elongated dendritic cells crowded around dermal papillae, some of them forming bridges that resembled the mitochondrial aspect at confocal and histopathology transversal sections. Pigment globules in melanomas and nevi differed for the presence of large atypical cells in the former, and pseudopods showed up as elongated nests protruded toward the periphery of the lesion.

Transverse histologic research sections have a consistent dermoscopic and confocal correlate, and it may represent an help in confocal feature interpretation and an advance in improving melanoma diagnosis and knowledge of the biology of melanocytic lesions. The pituitary- skin connection in amphibians. Reciprocal regulation of melanotrope cells and dermal melanocytes. In amphibians, alpha-MSH secreted by the pars intermedia of the pituitary plays a pivotal role in the process of skin color adaptation.

Reciprocally, the skin of amphibians contains a number of regulatory peptides, some of which have been found to regulate the activity of pituitary melanotrope cells. In particular, the skin of certain species of amphibians harbours considerable amounts of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a highly potent stimulator of alpha-MSH release.

These data strongly suggest the existence of a regulatory loop between the pars intermedia of the pituitary and the skin in amphibians. Dynamic markers based on blood perfusion fluctuations for selecting skin melanocytic lesions for biopsy. Skin malignant melanoma is a highly angiogenic cancer, necessitating early diagnosis for positive prognosis. The current diagnostic standard of biopsy and histological examination inevitably leads to many unnecessary invasive excisions.

Here, we propose a non-invasive method of identification of melanoma based on blood flow dynamics. We consider a wide frequency range from 0. The method reveals valuable functional information about the melanoma microenvironment. It also provides the means for simple, accurate, in vivo distinction between malignant melanoma and atypical nevi, and may lead to a substantial reduction in the number of biopsies currently undertaken. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy RCM is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition optical coherence tomography HD-OCT appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM.

However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis. The aim of this paper is first to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in melanocytic lesions by HD-OCT. The second objective is to determine the best critical value of these optical properties for melanoma diagnosis.

The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes a straight line has been implemented on HD-OCT signals coming from four successive skin layers epidermis, upper papillary dermis, deeper papillary dermis and superficial reticular dermis. High negative predictive values could be found for these optical properties HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with in vivo analysis of optical properties of tissue scatterers in melanocytic lesions.

Is there just one lesion? The need for whole body skin examination in patients presenting with non- melanocytic skin cancer. In patients presenting with non-melanoma skin cancer NMSC the frequency of concurrently presenting tumours is poorly documented. Whole body skin examination is recommended but in a recent survey of Australian General Practitioners and skin cancer clinics doctors it was infrequently performed.

The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of concurrent skin cancer at initial presentation and therefore to examine the need for whole body skin examination for NMSC presentations. One hundred consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis indicative of NMSC were examined. Data was analysed as to the referring doctor's diagnosis, whole body skin examination findings and histology of excised lesions.

Epidemiological data was obtained by patient questionnaire. One hundred patients, 41 males and 59 females, with a mean age of 70 years range years underwent whole body skin examination. Thirty-four of the additional lesions detected were in areas covered by clothing. Sixty-eight patients had a past history of skin cancer excision.

In the Australian patient population, the need for whole body skin examination is essential to avoid missing concurrent lesions. Ongoing surveillance is also essential as these patients have a high risk of developing future NMSC. Autophagy as a melanocytic self-defense mechanism. Defects in autophagy have implications for melanocyte survival and manifestations of skin pigmentary disorders. Zhang et al. Interestingly, contrary to previous findings, the melanocyte -specific deficiency in autophagy did not cause major defects in melanosome biogenesis, nor did it produce visually striking changes in mouse coat color.

Comprehensive analysis of melanogenesis and proliferation potential of melanocyte lineage in solar lentigines. Solar lentigines SLs are characterized by hyperpigmented macules, commonly seen on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Although it has been reported that an increase in the number of melanocytes and epidermal melanin content was observed in the lesions, the following questions remain to be answered: 1 Is acceleration of melanogenesis in the epidermis caused by an increased number of melanocytes or the high melanogenic potential of each melanocyte?

To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of SLs by investigating the number, melanogenic potential and proliferation status of the melanocyte lineage in healthy skin and SL lesions. Immunostaining for melanocyte lineage markers tyrosinase, MART-1, MITF, and Frizzled-4 and a proliferation marker, Ki67, was performed on skin sections, and the obtained images were analyzed by image analysis software. The expression level of tyrosinase to MART-1 of each melanocyte was significantly higher in SL lesions than healthy skin.

The numbers of melanocytes in the epidermis, melanoblasts in the hair follicular infundibulum and melanocyte stem cells in the bulge region were increased in SL; however, no significant difference was observed in the Kipositive rate of these cells. The melanogenic potential of each melanocyte was elevated in SL lesions. It was suggested that the increased number of melanocytes in the SL epidermis might be attributed to the abnormal increase of melanocyte stem cells in the bulge.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma: increased melanin or increased melanocytes? Studies on the precise cause of increased melanization in pigmented basal cell carcinomas BCC are limited. We aimed to determine whether the cause of melanization is from increased number of melanocytes or increased melanin pigment, and if there is a difference in the number of melanocytes on different sun-exposed locations. A retrospective review of 45 skin biopsies from January to February was performed; 30 were diagnosed as pigmented BCC and 15 as non-pigmented BCC.

Associations between histopathologic features, number of melanocytes , location, and specific diagnoses were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The mean melanocyte count per high powered field in pigmented BCCs from sun-exposed skin was Therefore, the pigment is not only due to increased melanin, but also due to increased melanocytes. Prostaglandin production by melanocytic cells and the effect of alpha- melanocyte stimulating hormone.

Prostaglandins are potent mediators of the inflammatory response and are also involved in cancer development. In this study, we show that human melanocytes and FM55 melanoma cells express cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 COX-1 and -2 and thus have the capability to produce prostaglandins.

The anti-inflammatory peptide, alpha- melanocyte stimulating hormone alpha-MSH , reduced prostaglandin production in FM55 and HaCaT cells and reversed the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the former. These results indicate that melanocytes produce prostaglandins and that alpha-MSH, by inhibiting this response, may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in the skin. Keratinocyte- melanocyte interactions during melanosome transfer.

The epidermal-melanin unit is composed of one melanocyte and approximately 36 neighboring keratinocytes, working in synchrony to produce and distribute melanin. Melanin is synthesized in melanosomes, transferred to the dendrite tips, and translocated into keratinocytes, forming caps over the keratinocyte nuclei. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in melanosome transfer and the keratinocyte- melanocyte interactions required for this process are not yet completely understood. Suggested mechanisms of melanosome transfer include melanosome release and endocytosis, direct inoculation 'injection' , keratinocyte- melanocyte membrane fusion, and phagocytosis.

Studies of the keratinocyte receptor protease-activated receptor-2 PAR-2 support the phagocytosis theory. PAR-2 controls melanosome ingestion and phagocytosis by keratinocytes and exerts a regulatory role in skin pigmentation. Modulation of PAR-2 activity can enhance or decrease melanosome transfer and affects pigmentation only when there is keratinocyte- melanocyte contact.

Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes from the basal epidermal layer. The pathogenesis of the disease is likely multifactorial and involves autoimmune causes, as well as oxidative and mechanical stress. It is important to identify early events in vitiligo to clarify pathogenesis, improve diagnosis, and inform therapy.

Here, we show that E-cadherin Ecad , which mediates the adhesion between melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis, is absent from or discontinuously distributed across melanocyte membranes of vitiligo patients long before clinical lesions appear. This abnormality is associated with the detachment of the melanocytes from the basal to the suprabasal layers in the epidermis.

Our results implicate a primary predisposing skin defect affecting melanocyte adhesiveness that, under stress conditions, leads to disappearance of melanocytes and clinical vitiligo. Melanocyte adhesiveness is thus a potential target for therapy aiming at disease stabilization.

Monitoring human melanocytic cell responses to piperine using multispectral imaging. Samatham, Ravikant; Phillips, Kevin G. Vitiligo is a depigmentary disease characterized by melanocyte loss attributed most commonly to autoimmune mechanisms. Piperine, a compound found in black pepper, is a potential treatment for the depigmentary skin disease vitiligo, due to its ability to stimulate mouse epidermal melanocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

The present study investigates the use of multispectral imaging and an image processing technique based on local contrast to quantify the stimulatory effects of piperine on human melanocyte proliferation in reconstructed epidermis. We demonstrate the ability of the imaging method to quantify increased pigmentation in response to piperine treatment. The quantization of melanocyte stimulation by the proposed imaging technique illustrates the potential use of this technology to quickly assess therapeutic responses of vitiligo tissue culture models to treatment non-invasively.

Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time — : Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry? We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0—14 and 15—29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type I—III or III—IV.

Other populations like the Chinese III-IV had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites.

Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin , i. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin HSP , the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear.

Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine BF10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes.

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation. The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses.

There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light- skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes , of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. Pleiotrophin PTN is a secreted heparin-binding protein that is involved in various biological functions of cell growth and differentiation.

Little is known about the effects of PTN on the melanocyte function and skin pigmentation. In this study, we investigated whether PTN would affect melanogenesis. PTN was expressed in melanocytes and fibroblasts of human skin. The inhibitory action of PTN in pigmentation was further confirmed in ex vivo cultured skin and in the melanocytes cocultured with fibroblasts.

These findings suggest that PTN is a crucial factor for the regulation of melanogenesis in the skin. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation. Cells secrete extracellular vesicles EVs , exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions.

Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B.

In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. Melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes of Japanese Silky chicken embryos. The Japanese Silky chicken SK shows dermal and visceral hyperpigmentation. This study characterizes ultrastructurally the melanin granules developing in dermal melanocytes of the dorsal skin of SK, in an attempt to better understand the processes of melanogenesis in these permanently ectopic cells.

The steps of melanogenesis are similar to those described for epidermal melanocytes , with melanosomes going from stage I to IV but, in SK, the maturation occurs in the cell body, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes. At stage III, the deposition of melanin is cumulative and can aggregate in rounded structures, which combine to turn into the mature granule. The final destiny of mature melanosomes is still unclear, although it was observed that dermal macrophages can accumulate melanin granules in their phagosomes.

Even with the close proximity between melanocytes and other dermal cells, the transference of melanosomes was not observed. Our findings indicate that melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes in SK has the same morphological characteristics found in epidermal melanocytes , but the functional aspect still remains to be elucidated.

Melanocytic nevi and non-neoplastic hyperpigmentations. The first chapter concerns non-neoplastic hyperpigmented skin lesions and nevi, the second will address the topics of dysplastic nevus, borderline and low malignant potential melanocytic proliferations and the third melanoma in its variants and differential diagnoses with a supplement on the immunohistochemistry and molecular support to diagnostic and prognostic definition of nevi and melanomas. Although we believe that great advances were made in the application of ancillary genetic, immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, for the diagnosis and biological characterization of melanocytic tumors the morphology still remains the gold standard.

These chapters are not intended as substitutes or even claim to be compared to the numerous and valuable texts that are also recently published, but they want to present, concisely and quickly available, all of those traits that we believe essential to the histopathological evaluation of a melanocytic lesion. No morphological parameter is exclusive and individually sufficient to make the correct diagnosis of nevus or melanoma but to reach a final conclusive and appropriate interpretation a set of morphological characters must be evaluated and compared.

I was lucky enough to be able to examine several thousand cases and to draw lessons from each of these increasing my diagnostic experience. I had a great lesson by my teacher and good friend Prof. Martin C. Mihm Jr of Boston, dermato-pathologist with undisputed international reputation, who, with great passion, patience and friendship, transferred me much of his experience and knowledge and for which I always thank him. Special thanks I would like to address Dr. Agostino Crupi, dermatologist, skin -oncologist and brilliant dermatoscopist who taught me how the.

UVA phototransduction drives early melanin synthesis in human melanocytes. UVB causes DNA lesions [6] that lead to transcriptional activation of melanin-producing enzymes, resulting in delayed skin pigmentation within days [7]. In contrast, UVA causes primarily oxidative damage [8] and leads to immediate pigment darkening IPD within minutes, via an unknown mechanism [9, 10].

No receptor protein directly mediating phototransduction in skin has been identified. Here we demonstrate that exposure of primary human epidermal melanocytes HEMs to UVA causes calcium mobilization and early melanin synthesis. Calcium responses were abolished by treatment with G protein or phospholipase C PLC inhibitors or by depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

Upon UVR exposure, significant melanin production was measured within one hour; cellular melanin continued to increase in a retinal- and calcium-dependent manner up to 5-fold after 24 hr. Our findings identify a novel UVA-sensitive signaling pathway in melanocytes that leads to calcium mobilization and melanin synthesis and may underlie the mechanism of IPD in human skin.

Requirement of zebrafish pcdh10a and pcdh10b in melanocyte precursor migration. Melanocytes derive from neural crest cells, which are a highly migratory population of cells that play an important role in pigmentation of the skin and epidermal appendages. In most vertebrates, melanocyte precursor cells migrate solely along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the skin. However, zebrafish melanocyte precursors also migrate along the ventromedial pathway, in route to the yolk, where they interact with other neural crest derivative populations.

Here, we demonstrate the requirement for zebrafish paralogs pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration. Live cell imaging analysis demonstrates that loss of pchd10a results in a reduction of directed cell migration of melanocyte precursors, caused by both increased adhesion and a loss of cell-cell contact with other migratory neural crest cells.

Also, we determined that the paralog pcdh10b is upregulated and can compensate for the genetic loss of pcdh10a. Disruption of pcdh10b alone by CRISPR mutagenesis results in somite defects, while the loss of both paralogs results in enhanced migratory melanocyte precursor phenotype and embryonic lethality.

These results reveal a novel role for pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration and suggest that pcdh10 paralogs potentially interact for proper transient migration along the ventromedial pathway. Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes.

Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet UV light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin.

Using an in-depth correlative analysis of multiple experimental and clinical data sets, we generated a modern molecular research platform that can be used as a working model for further research of vitiligo repigmentation. Our long-term goal is to design pharmacological compounds that can specifically activate melanocyte precursors in the hair follicle in order to obtain faster, better, and durable repigmentation.

Mosenson, Jeffrey A. Tung, Rebecca; Poole, I. Caroline Le. Upon extracellular release, HSP70i serves an adjuvant function, enhancing immune responses to bound peptides. We questioned whether HSP70i differentially protects control and vitiligo melanocytes from stress and subsequent immune responses. We compared expression of HSP70i in skin samples, evaluated the viability of primary vitiligo and control melanocytes exposed to bleaching phenols, and measured secreted HSP70i.

We determined whether HSP70i traffics to melanosomes to contact immunogenic proteins by cell fractionation, western blotting, electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Viability of vitiligo and control melanocytes was equally affected under stress. Thus whereas either agent is cytotoxic to melanocytes , MBEH preferentially induces immune responses to melanocytes. Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative.

Different computer-aided diagnosis CAD systems have been proposed to increase the specificity and sensitivity of melanoma detection. Although such computer programs are developed for different diagnostic algorithms, to the best of our knowledge, a system to classify different melanocytic lesions has not been proposed yet.

In this research we present a new approach to the classification of melanocytic lesions. The proposed automatic algorithm contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and selection as well as classification.

A proposed system can not only help to precisely diagnose the type of the skin mole but also decrease the amount of biopsies and reduce the morbidity related to skin lesion excision. Coexistence of congenital giant melanocytic nevus of the scalp with cranial defect, poliosis, and hair loss. CMN have been described as being associated with several anomalies, including cranial bone hypertrophy, scoliosis, and spina bifida.

This is the first report to describe a giant congenital melanocytic nevus on the scalp associated with cranial involvement, poliosis, and alopecia. Image enhancement of optical images for binary system of melanocytes and keratinocytes. Automatic determination of the cell shapes of large numbers of melanocytes based on optical images of human skin models have been largely unsuccessful the complexities introduced by dendrites and the melanin pigmentation over the keratinocytes to give unclear outlines.

Here, we present an image enhancement procedure for enhancing the contrast of images with removing the non-uniformity of background. The brightness is normalized also for the non-uniform population density of melanocytes. Pagetoid reticulosis epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an adult alpaca Vicugna pacos.

A 9-year-old, intact female alpaca Vicugna pacos was presented for a second opinion with a 1-year history of nonpruritic, multifocal scaling and crusted cutaneous lesions, mainly involving skin on the face, axillae, and ventral abdomen. Clinical abnormalities were limited to the skin , and the alpaca was otherwise healthy. The initial veterinarian had examined the alpaca, found no evidence of ectoparasites with laboratory testing, and had tried several trial therapies including oral antibiotics, ivermectin, and topical use of betadine solution.

At the time of presentation, the lesions had neither improved nor worsened with any attempted therapy, and multiple skin biopsies were collected. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining findings were consistent with the pagetoid reticulosis type of cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma.

Our report describes the clinical, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features of pagetoid reticulosis epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an alpaca. Increased endogenous DNA oxidation correlates to increased iron levels in melanocytes relative to keratinocytes.

The endogenous oxidative state of normal human epidermal melanocytes was investigated and compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes NHEKs in order to gain new insight into melanocyte biology. Nevertheless, despite lower concentrations of H2O2, we now report higher levels of oxidative DNA in melanocytes as indicated by increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine 8-oxo-dG : 4.

An antioxidant biomarker, glutathione GSH , was also lower in melanocytes 3. Intriguingly, cellular bioavailable iron as measured in ferritin was found to be nearly fourfold higher in melanocytes than in NHEKs. Further, ferritin levels in melanocytes were also higher than in hepatocarcinoma cells, an iron-rich cell, and it indicates that higher relative iron levels may be characteristic of melanocytes.

It is a simple and safe treatment, which makes it popular. Further research in mesotherapy is essential due to a limited number of published studies. Ultrasound is a useful method to monitor intradermal mesotherapy and assess its efficacy.

Comparison of the intradermal irritant threshold concentrations of nine allergens from two different manufacturers in clinically nonallergic dogs in the USA. The intradermal irritant threshold concentration for many allergens is unknown. To determine the intradermal irritant threshold concentration ITC of nine allergens from two different manufacturers.

Twenty privately owned clinically nonallergic dogs. A subjective score of 3 or 4 by either investigator at either timed reading was considered positive. If both concentrations resulted in positive reactions, two additional dilutions were performed. Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture.

The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively. Expert Panel Elicitation. Jensen, M.

Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources. While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project.

The results show an unusual low variation between the experts. Eliciting Sound Memories. Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks.

I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

Roukens Guy ; A. Vossen Ann ; P. Bredenbeek Peter ; J. Visser Leo. An alternative route of administration with reduced amounts of vaccine but without loss of vaccine efficacy would boost vaccination programmes. Methods and Findings:A randomized,. Elicited vs. We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee.

This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost. Validation of the cephalosporin intradermal skin test for predicting immediate hypersensitivity: a prospective study with drug challenge. Cephalosporin is a major offending agent in terms of drug hypersensitivity along with penicillin.

Cephalosporin intradermal skin tests IDTs have been widely used; however, their validity for predicting immediate hypersensitivity has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of cephalosporin intradermal skin testing before administration of the drug.

We prospectively conducted IDTs with four cephalosporins, one each of selected first-, second-, third-, or fourth-generation cephalosporins: ceftezol; cefotetan or cefamandole; ceftriaxone or cefotaxime; and flomoxef, respectively, as well as with penicillin G. After the skin test, whatever the result, one of the tested cephalosporins was administered intravenously and the patient was carefully observed. We recruited patients who required preoperative cephalosporins.

However, none of responders had immediate hypersensitivity reactions after a challenge dose of the same or different cephalosporin, which were positive in the skin test. Four patients who suffered generalized urticaria and itching after challenge gave negative skin tests for the corresponding drug. Routine skin testing with a cephalosporin before its administration is not useful for predicting immediate hypersensitivity because of the extremely low sensitivity and PPV of the skin test CRIS registration no.

Township Administered Roads. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS , mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard. Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome.

In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections.

During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization.

On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.

On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the.

Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: mesotherapy hazard. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the subcutaneous adipose tissue into the circulation when injected. University medical school in Japan. Further studies of the diagnostic significance and immunological mechanisms of this phenomenon are needed.

For clinical application, especially during contact screening, QFT-G should be evaluated while keeping in mind the possible influence of prior PPD intradermal injection. Intradermal invasive lobular carcinoma presenting: Not everything in the skin is benign. In this case report, the history and imaging of two patients with invasive lobular carcinoma ILC in the skin are presented, followed by a discussion of both benign and malignant intradermal findings on breast ultrasound.

Although the majority of dermal findings are benign, these cases are a reminder that malignancy can manifest within the skin. The purpose of presenting these cases together is to remind breast imagers of the importance of considering malignancy in the differential diagnosis of intradermal lesions on breast ultrasound, especially in special circumstances such as a personal history of breast cancer or associated clinical findings.

The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial. Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis.

Sodium cromoglicate SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine.

The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis.

Sodium cromoglicate SCG , a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements. Syndecan-1 is required to maintain intradermal fat and prevent cold stress. Full Text Available Homeostatic temperature regulation is fundamental to mammalian physiology and is controlled by acute and chronic responses of local, endocrine and nervous regulators.

Here, we report that loss of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, causes a profoundly depleted intradermal fat layer, which provides crucial thermogenic insulation for mammals. The metabolic phenotype in mutant mice, including reduced liver glycogen, is rescued by housing at thermoneutrality, suggesting that reduced insulation in cool temperatures underlies the observed phenotypes.

We find that syndecan-1, which functions as a facultative lipoprotein uptake receptor, is required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Intradermal fat shows highly dynamic differentiation, continuously expanding and involuting in response to hair cycle and ambient temperature. This physiology probably confers a unique role for Sdc1 in this adipocyte sub-type.

Our study indicates that disruption of intradermal adipose tissue development results in cold stress and complex metabolic pathology. Immunogenicity to poliovirus type 2 following two doses of fractional intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: A novel dose sparing immunization schedule. The global removal of oral poliovirus type 2 was successfully implemented in May We conducted a literature review and contacted corresponding authors of recent studies with fractional-dose IPV fIPV , one-fifth of intramuscular dose administered intradermally , to conduct additional type 2 immunogenicity analyses of two fIPV doses compared with one full-dose IPV.

In response to the current IPV shortage, a schedule of two fIPV doses at ages 6 and 14weekshas been endorsed by technical oversight committees and has been introduced in some affected countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Cosmeceutical effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Kombucha tea by intradermal administration in the skin of aged mice.

Natural ingredients have been always an interesting approach to prolong youthful appearance of skin. One of the natural compounds is Kombucha tea KT , which has been mainly used as an energy drink in Asian countries for a long time. Previous reports indicated that it has pharmaceutical and favorable wound repairing effects. The beneficial properties of KT are thought to be mainly due to the presence of fermentation products such as flavonoids and other polyphenols with inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects.

These properties prompted us to study the anti-aging potential of KT and investigate its effective fraction in aged mice, METHODS: Kombucha tea was fractionated into chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate, and flavonoid content was determined. Young and old mice were used as control.

KT ethyl acetate fraction KEAf , which had the highest flavonoid content, was intradermally administered to old mice. No sensitivity or irritation was observed. This finding suggested that KEAf can be a suitable candidate as a cosmetic product to improve aging-related skin abnormalities and regeneration of aged skin. Constructive Preference Elicitation. Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge.

Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc.

In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations.

Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome WS. To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS age years , 10 typically developing children age years , and 12 typically developing adults.

Nearly every WS…. Five volunteers were placebo recipients. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Immunotherapy in viral warts with intradermal Bacillus Calmette—Guerin vaccine versus intradermal tuberculin purified protein derivative: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness and safety in a tertiary care center in Eastern India.

Conclusion: Both intradermal Bacillus Calmette—Guerin and tuberculin purified protein derivative hold promise in the treatment of viral warts. Bacillus Calmette—Guerin may be more effective, though it had more adverse events in our study. Intradermal influenza vaccination of healthy adults using a new microinjection system: a 3-year randomised controlled safety and immunogenicity trial.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal vaccination provides direct and potentially more efficient access to the immune system via specialised dendritic cells and draining lymphatic vessels. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety during 3 successive years of different dosages of a trivalent, inactivated, split-virion vaccine against seasonal influenza given intradermally using a microinjection system compared with an intramuscular control vaccine.

Methods In a randomised, partially blinded, controlled study, healthy volunteers aged 18 to 57 years at enrolment received three annual vaccinations of intradermal or intramuscular vaccine. Randomisation lists in Year 1 were stratified for site. Randomisation lists in Years 2 and 3 were stratified for site and by vaccine received in previous years to ensure the inclusion of a comparable number of subjects in a vaccine group at each centre each year. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each vaccination.

Safety was assessed throughout the study. Safety of the intradermal and intramuscular vaccinations was comparable in each year of the study. Injection site erythema and swelling was more common with the intradermal route. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes.

A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of patients each: Group A, patients tested between and prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in and following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing.

Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Posthurricane patients had This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

Muzzle imprint mark: a patterned injury which may be constituted of intradermal blood extravasations. The muzzle imprint mark in contact shots is usually regarded as a patterned pressure abrasion depicting the barrel end as well as adjacent constructional components of the weapon. Due to parching after exposure to air, the affected skin assumes a brown color, especially along the contours of the impacting structures.

Apart from this well-known type of epidermal damage, the imprint mark may also be formed by intradermal hemorrhages. In some cases, these intracutaneous bleedings manifest themselves as circular, curved or straight reddish lines mirroring the surface relief of the weapon's muzzle end.

To estimate the frequency of skin hematomas in muzzle imprints, 35 consecutive contact shots to the head temple, forehead, submental and occipital region were evaluated. In 3 cases, the muzzle imprint mark exclusively consisted of intracutaneous bruises surrounding the bullet entrance hole. In 14 cases, the muzzle imprint was composed of both excoriations and intradermal hematomas.

Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer NMSC due to the long interval i. Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses.

The ideal tattoo pigment for labeling of skin biopsy sites for NMSC requires i invisibility under ambient light, ii fluorescence under a selective light source, iii a finite intradermal retention time ca. Herein, we introduce cross-linked fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles c-FSNPs as a "finite tattoo" pigment, with optimized photophysical properties and intradermal retention time to achieve successful in vivo finite tattooing.

Fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles encapsulate a fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly[5-methoxy 3-sulfopropoxy -1,4-phenylenevinylene] MPS-PPV , into a core via a supramolecular synthetic approach. The nm sized c-FSNPs display an ideal intradermal retention time ca. In addition, the c-FSNPs induce undetectable inflammatory responses after tattooing.

Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy intradermal therapy. This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with anot Kinetics of Leptospira interrogans infection in hamsters after intradermal and subcutaneous challenge.

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by highly motile, helically shaped bacteria that penetrate the skin and mucous membranes through lesions or abrasions, and rapidly disseminate throughout the body. Although the intraperitoneal route of infection is widely used to experimentally inoculate hamsters, this challenge route does not represent a natural route of infection.

Here we describe the kinetics of disease and infection in hamster model of leptospirosis after subcutaneous and intradermal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L Histopathologic changes in and around the kidney, including glomerular and tubular damage and interstitial inflammatory changes, began on day 5, and preceded deterioration in renal function as measured by serum creatinine. Weight loss, hemoconcentration, increased absolute neutrophil counts ANC in the blood and hepatic dysfunction were first noted on day 6.

Vascular endothelial growth factor, a serum marker of sepsis severity, became elevated during the later stages of infection. The burden of infection, as measured by quantitative PCR, was highest in the kidney and peaked on day 5 after intradermal challenge and on day 6 after subcutaneous challenge.

Compared to subcutaneous challenge, intradermal challenge resulted in a lower burden of infection in both the kidney and liver on day 6, lower ANC and less weight loss on day 7. The intradermal and subcutaneous challenge routes result in significant differences in the kinetics of dissemination and disease after challenge with L. These results provide new information regarding infection kinetics in the hamster model of leptospirosis. Intradermal injection of PPD as a novel approach of immunotherapy in anogenital warts in pregnant women.

Immunotherapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts was used through different modalities including intralesional injection of purified protein derivative PPD , which is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, used for testing exposure to tuberculin protein, either from a previous vaccination or from the environment. This method is used to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach of intradermal injection of PPD in the treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women, aged years, and presented with anogenital warts were enrolled in this study.

The patients were treated with weekly injections of PPD given intradermally in the forearms, and evaluated for the response regularly. HPV type-6 was the predominant genotype Nineteen Three 7. Side effects were minimal and insignificant. Treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women with intradermal injection of PPD was found to be a unique, safe, and effective modality of immunotherapy.

Interrupted or continuous- intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars. Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring.

We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male. Their mean age was The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9.

Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7—11 months after operation mean: 9. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques.

Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors. Effect of intradermal human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase on random pattern flaps in rats. Studies have focused on enhancing flap viability using superoxide dismutase SOD , but only a few used SOD from human origin, and most gave the compound systemically.

We evaluated the ability of SOD to improve random skin flap survival using human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase Hr-CuZnSOD in variable doses, injected intradermally into the flap. Seventy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Cephalic random pattern flaps were elevated on their backs and intradermal injections of different dosages of Hr-CuZnSOD were given 15 minutes before surgery.

Flap survival was evaluated by fluorescein fluorescence. Flap survival in all treated groups was significantly better than in the controls. Effect analysis of intradermal hyaluronic acid injection to treat enlarged facial pores. To investigate the clinical application and efficacy of intradermal injection of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid LMW-HA for treating enlarged facial pores.

From January to May , 42 subjects who sought aesthetic treatment underwent intradermal injection of LMW-HA to improve enlarged facial pores. For each treatment, 2. The treatment was repeated times with an interval of 1 to 1. Statistical analysis was used to compare the degree of enlargement of facial pores before and after injection.

The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were recorded. The enlarged facial pores before and after treatment were categorized and subjected to the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. The difference was statistically significant Pinjection sites in the subjects who sought aesthetic treatment. The overall satisfaction rate was Intradermal injection of LMW-HA can significantly improve skin texture, reduce pore size, and enhance skin radiance. The injection technique was simple, safe, and effective and could easily be extended to clinical practice.

Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs. Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality.

Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus AIV infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks. However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response.

Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks.

Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine CpG oligodeoxynucleotide ODN adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity. Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination.

Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks.

The comparative performance of the single intradermal test and the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations of differing potencies. In national bovine tuberculosis BTB control programmes, testing is generally conducted using a single source of bovine purified protein derivative PPD tuberculin.

Alternative tuberculin sources should be identified as part of a broad risk management strategy as problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted. This study was conducted to compare the impact of different potencies of a single bovine PPD tuberculin on the field performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test SICTT and single intradermal test SIT.

Test results were compared based on reactor-status and changes in skin-thickness at the bovine tuberculin injection site. There was a significant difference in the number of reactors detected using the high and low potency tuberculins. Tuberculin of different potencies will affect reactor disclosure rates, confounding between-year or between-country comparisons. Independent checks of tuberculin potency are an important aspect of quality control in national BTB control programmes.

Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences. Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery.

Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment DCE was used to elicit preferences.

Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each Full Text Available Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response.

Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide ZnO nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods.

Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery. The nano-rods' length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc.

Field study on the safety and efficacy of intradermal versus intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one. As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions ISR and rectal temperatures were assessed. ISRs were minor in V1.

After both vaccinations, no adverse impact on appetite was observed and mean rectal temperatures remained within physiological range. ADWG during the fattening period was significantly higher in vaccinated groups V1: Vaccinated pigs had a significantly reduced mean extent of LL compared with CG. V1 was superior in reducing the extent and prevalence of LL compared with V2. These results reveal that a needle-free intradermal vaccination is safe and efficacious in reducing both the prevalence and extent of lung lesions, as well as in improving performance parameters, in a farrow-to-finish farm with a late onset of M hyopneumonia e infection.

No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with another tool for the treatment of local pain. However, it is important to provide patients with full details of the pros and cons of this approach and obtain informed patient consent.

Full Text Available New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates.

We also observed a rapid and transient granulocyte recruitment and the release of IL-6 and IL-1RA, followed by a persistent phase involving inflammatory monocytes. This systemic inflammation was confirmed by molecular signatures, such as upregulations of IL-6 and TNF pathways and acute phase response signaling. Such comprehensive approaches improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal orchestration of vaccine- elicited immune response, in a live-attenuated vaccine model, and thus contribute to rational vaccine development.

Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride. Sequential treatment with intradermal incision intracision and 2,nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars. Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges.

Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision. Intradermal incision technique intracision can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing.

To develop a new intradermal antigen delivery system by coating microneedle arrays with lipid bilayer-coated, antigen-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles LB-MSN-OVA. Microneedle arrays coated with LB-MSN-OVA were successfully developed and shown to be suitable for intradermal delivery of the encapsulated protein antigen. Skin reactions to human papillomavirus HPV 16 specific antigens intradermally injected in healthy subjects and patients with cervical neoplasia.

Rob P. We have tested the safety and feasibility of a synthetic long peptide-based HPVspecific skin test to detect cellular immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in vivo. Vial usage, device dead space, vaccine wastage, and dose accuracy of intradermal delivery devices for inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV. Intradermal delivery of a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV offers potential benefits compared to intramuscular IM delivery, including possible cost reductions and easing of IPV supply shortages.

Objectives of this study were to assess intradermal delivery devices for dead space, wastage generated by the filling process, dose accuracy, and total number of doses that can be delivered per vial. Devices tested included syringes with staked fixed needles autodisable syringes and syringes used with intradermal adapters , a luer-slip needle and syringe, a mini-needle syringe, a hollow microneedle device, and disposable-syringe jet injectors with their associated filling adapters.

Each device was used to withdraw 0. Both vial and device were weighed before and after filling and again after expulsion of liquid to record change in volume at each stage of the process. Data were used to calculate the number of doses that could potentially be obtained from multidose vials. Results show wide variability in dead space, dose accuracy, overall wastage, and total number of doses that can be obtained per vial among intradermal delivery devices. Syringes with staked needles had relatively low dead space and low overall wastage, and could achieve a greater number of doses per vial compared to syringes with a detachable luer-slip needle.

Of the disposable-syringe jet injectors tested, one was comparable to syringes with staked needles. If intradermal delivery of IPV is introduced, selection of an intradermal delivery device can have a substantial impact on vaccine wasted during administration, and thus on the required quantity of vaccine that needs to be purchased. An ideal intradermal delivery device should be not only safe, reliable, accurate, and acceptable to users and vaccine recipients, but should also have low dead space, high dose accuracy, and low overall.

A potential relationship between skin hydration and stamp-type microneedle intradermal hyaluronic acid injection in middle-aged male face. There is an increasing interest in skin rejuvenation using hyaluronic acid HA fillers beyond the improvement of deep wrinkles and volume deficiencies, which have been primary research foci in the past. We conducted a pilot study using a sample of six middle-aged male subjects.

Using an automatic intradermal injector with 0. We administered injections of HA for a total of three sessions per subject at 2-week intervals and evaluated the results using a corneometer, TEWL, cutometer, measures of patient satisfaction, and the global aesthetic improvement scale GAIS.

Corneometer values increased steadily at each measurement, while the average value of TEWL increased in comparison with baseline after each application of the procedure. However, values returned to readings similar to those at 4 weeks after complete termination of the procedures. Cutometer values differed between the baseline and after procedures. All patients were assessed as "very much improved" or "much improved" according to GAIS, and all were pleased with the outcomes of treatment in terms of the enhancement of moisture, elasticity, and brightness.

Intradermal capsaicin as a neuropathic pain model in patients with unilateral sciatica. AIM This study compared the responses between patients with unilateral sciatica and pain-free volunteers following administration of intradermal capsaicin. For each dose, spontaneous pain 10 cm VAS , area of flare cm2 and the sum of allodynia and hyperalgesia radii across eight axes cm were recorded pre-injection and at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min post injection.

RESULTS Sciatica subjects experienced higher spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia responses in both legs compared with pain-free volunteers. The largest mean difference in spontaneous pain was 2. The largest mean difference in hyperalgesia was Allodynia was greater in patients than in controls with the largest mean difference of 2. Allodynia was also higher in the affected leg compared with the unaffected leg in sciatica patients with the highest mean difference of 3.

False-negative reactions to the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for bovine tuberculosis. The latter is also used as a confirmatory test. A group of 53 animals from three dairy herds in a focal area for bovine tuberculosis, that were submitted to depopulation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, were submitted to the CITT. Among the 53 animals analyzed using the CITT, 32 Among the total of 14 uninfected animals based on cultures, the CBT detected eight as negative.

Thus, the CITT demonstrated sensitivity of The maintenance of these false-negative animals in herds has serious implications for the control of the disease, since they can be a source of infection. The addition of complementary tests could help identify such animals and increase the odds of diagnostic success. Emotion Eliciting in Affective Design. The fundamental affective design principle also applies to assistive product design.

This paper outl To form a closed loop reflective model, the emotion response from the user is assessed with an emotion assessment tool. Emotion ontology is established to form the backbone of the emotion assessment tool Schneider, Laura P. However, it is not useful as a vaccine adjuvant due to its toxicity. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note. Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants Glaser, , Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews.

The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen.

Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Immune response and reactogenicity of intradermal administration versus subcutaneous administration of varicella-zoster virus vaccine: an exploratory, randomised, partly blinded trial.

The licensed live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine prevents herpes zoster in adults older than 50 years. We aimed to determine whether intradermal administration of zoster vaccine could enhance vaccine immunogenicity compared with conventional needle subcutaneous administration. In this randomised, dose-ranging study, adults aged 50 years or older who had a history of varicella or who had resided in a country with endemic varicella-zoster virus infection for 30 years or more were eligible.

The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the change from baseline in IgG antibody to varicella-zoster virus-specific glycoproteins gpELISA measured at 6 weeks. All patients were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials. The clinical distinction between basal cell carcinoma BCC and intradermal melanocytic nevus lesions on the face can be difficult, particularly in young patients or patients with multiple nevi.

Dermoscopy is a useful tool for analyzing characteristic dermoscopic features of BCC, such as cartwheel structures, maple leaf-like areas, blue-gray nests and dots, and ulceration. It also reveals arborizing telangiectatic vessels and prominent curved vessels, which are typical of BCC, and comma vessels, which are typical of intradermal melanocytic nevi. It is, however, not always easy to distinguish between these 2 conditions, even when dermoscopy is used.

We describe 2 facial lesions that posed a clinical and dermoscopic challenge in two year-old patients; confocal microscopy showed separation between tumor nests and stroma and polarized nuclei, which are confocal microscopy features of basal cell carcinoma. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified.

In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated.

Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system.

The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer.

Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in. Hollow agarose microneedle with silver coating for intradermal surface-enhanced Raman measurements: a skin-mimicking phantom study. Human intradermal components contain important clinical information beneficial to the field of immunology and disease diagnosis.

Although microneedles have shown great potential to act as probes to break the human skin barrier for the minimally invasive measurement of intradermal components, metal microneedles that include stainless steel could cause the following problems: 1 sharp waste production, and 2 contamination due to reuse of microneedles especially in developing regions. In this study, we fabricate agarose microneedles coated with a layer of silver Ag and demonstrate their use as a probe for the realization of intradermal surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements in a set of skin-mimicking phantoms.

The Ag-coated agarose microneedle quantifies a range of glucose concentrations from 5 to mM inside the skin phantoms with a root-mean-square error of 5. The needle is found enlarged by The shape-changing capability of this agarose microneedle ensures that the reuse of these microneedles is impossible, thus avoiding sharp waste production and preventing needle contamination, which shows the great potential for safe and effective needle-based measurements.

Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2 cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis. IL-4 and IL are major T-helper cell Th 2 cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, using a novel repetitive intradermal bleomycin model in which mice develop extensive lung fibrosis and a progressive decline in lung function compared with saline-treated control mice, we investigated profibrotic functions of Th2 cytokines.

Notably, our findings demonstrated that ILdriven migration involves increased phospho-focal adhesion kinase signaling and F-actin polymerization. Importantly, in vivo findings demonstrated that IL augments matrix metalloproteinase MMP -2 and MMP9 activity that has also been shown to increase migration and invasiveness of fibroblasts in the lungs during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

Together, our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for Th2-cytokine signaling that includes excessive migration and protease activity involved in severe fibrotic lung disease. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero. With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement.

Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis.

To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis.

Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique "blanching" for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

Intradermal therapy mesotherapy for the treatment of acute pain in carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary study. The carpal tunnel syndrome CTS is the most common cause of severe hand pain. In this study we treated acute pain in CTS patients by means of local intradermal injections of anti-inflammatory drugs mesotherapy. In twenty-five patients forty-five hands , CTS diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and neurophysiological examination prior to mesotherapy.

A mixture containing lidocaine 10 mg, ketoprophen lysine-acetylsalycilate 80 mg, xantinol nicotinate mg, cyanocobalamine 1, mcg plus injectable water was used. Sites of injection were three parallel lines above the transverse carpal ligament and two v-shaped lines, one at the base of the thenar eminence, and the other at the base of the hypothenar eminence.

The day after the treatment, all but four patients reported a significant reduction in pain and paresthesias. After 12 months, 17 patients had a complete pain relief, eight patients reported recurrence of pain and sensory symptoms and four out of them underwent surgical treatment. With the obvious limits of a small-size open-label study, our results suggest that mesotherapy can temporary relieve pain and paresthesias in most CTS patients and in some cases its effect seems to be long-lasting.

Further controlled studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings and to compare mesotherapy to conventional approaches for the treatment of CTS. Tissue expansion and fluid absorption by skin tissue following intradermal injections through hollow microneedles.

Hollow microneedles provide a promising alternative to conventional drug delivery techniques due to improved patient compliance and the dose sparing effect. The dynamics of fluid injected through hollow microneedles into skin, which is a heterogeneous and deformable porous medium, have not been investigated extensively in the past.

We have introduced the use of Optical Coherence Tomography OCT for real-time visualization of fluid injections into excised porcine tissue.

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SWISS COIN CRYPTO CURRENCY CHARTS

A prospective study of a low-dose one-tenth intradermal regimen using recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was under- taken during two consecutive years in 4th-year medical stu- dents. The lower titre of hepatitis B surface Evaluation of intravenous fluorescein in intradermal allergy testing in psittacines.

This study was designed to improve the clinical feasibility of intradermal skin testing of psittacine birds using intravenous fluorescein stain. Wheal diameters of reaction sites were measured grossly and under illumination with a Wood's lamp after 5 and 10 min. Fluorescence-enhanced injection sites were scored between 0 and 2, with 0 equivalent to normal skin and 2 equivalent to a plucked feather follicle.

The presence of a fluorescent halo around intradermal injections was also recorded. Under Wood's light illumination at 10 min, histamine and saline were evaluated as positive and negative controls, respectively, based on a positive test having a halo and a score of 2. Further, mean histamine reactions were significantly larger than codeine phosphate and saline 8. Wheal size, halo presence and score were affected by site location independent from the injected compound.

Intravenous fluorescein improved the readability of avian skin tests; however, the compounds tested raised inconsistent reactions in wheal size, score or halo presence. The compound-independent site effect raises concern on the validity of avian skin testing and warrants investigation of other techniques such as in vitro allergy testing.

Based on our findings, intradermal allergy testing in psittacines with or without fluorescein is unreliable and cannot be recommended for practical clinical use. Intradermal therapy mesotherapy with lymdiaral in chronic venous insufficiency and associated fibrosclerotic edema damage: a pilot study. Chronic venous insufficiency CVI induces alterations that cause fibrosclerotic edema of the subcutaneous tissue.

Efficacy was assessed by using clinical investigation, subjective and objective measures, and ultrasonography performed at baseline and after treatment. The treatment was well tolerated. Fifteen adverse reactions were reported among a total of doses administered 3. None of these reactions were severe or required discontinuation of treatment. Subjective symptoms and objective measures improved, and ultrasonography showed statistically significant changes in hypodermal thickness of the medial aspect of the knees.

Its open-label design and small sample size notwithstanding, this study indicates that intradermal therapy, according to the recommendation of the Italian Society of Mesotherapy, may provide a valuable contribution to the treatment of CVI and related fibrosclerotic edema of the subcutaneous tissue by prolonging the local effect of the pharmacologically active compounds.

Comparative studies are needed to identify the broader clinical and economic benefits of local therapy compared with other systemic therapies. Use of intradermal botulinum toxin to reduce sebum production and facial pore size. Review the safety profile and subjective efficacy of intradermal botulinum toxin type A in facial pore size and sebum production. Retrospective analysis of 20 patients. Preliminary data suggests that intradermal botulinum toxin may play a role in decreasing sebum production.

Further quantitive study may be necessary to determine effects of intradermal botulinum toxin on pore size. Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin.

However, these. Needle-free methods of drug delivery circumvent the drawbacks associated with the use of hypodermic needles such as needle-stick injuries, needle-phobia, cross contamination and disposal. Furthermore, pioneering DNA-based vaccines that aim to treat cancer and fight infectious diseases, such as HIV, Ebola and Zika, require precise deposition into the skin to target the immune response producing cells found only in the epidermis and dermis.

Intradermal ID delivery can be achieved using a needle and the Mantoux technique but this requires a highly skilled technician and so extensive use of DNA vaccines calls for an alternative method of delivery. One option is jet injection which has been employed in mass vaccination programs for intramuscular or subcutaneous delivery and is used by some diabetic patients to inject insulin.

In this talk I will present results from our ongoing ex-vivo experimental study into ID jet injection. Ultra-high-speed imaging is used to visualize the process of the jet exiting the nozzle and striking excised skin. A skin bleb grows as liquid is deposited within the skin.

I will discuss how the control parameters, such as the rheological profile of the liquid and the stand-off distance, influence the volume of liquid successfully delivered intradermally. Intradermal vaccination using the novel microneedle device MicronJet Past, present, and future. Intradermal immunization has become a forefront of vaccine improvement, both scientifically and commercially. Newer technologies are being developed to address the need to reduce the dose required for vaccination and to improve the reliability and ease of injection, which have been major hurdles in expanding the number of approved vaccines using this route of administration.

In this review, 7 y of clinical experience with a novel intradermal delivery device, the MicronJet, which is a registered hollow microneedle that simplifies the delivery of liquid vaccines, are summarized. This device has demonstrated both significant dose-sparing and superior immunogenicity in various vaccine categories, as well as in diverse subject populations and age groups.

These studies have shown that intradermal delivery using this device is safe, effective, and preferred by the subjects. Comparison with other intradermal devices and potential new applications for intradermal delivery that could be pursued in the future are also discussed. Belief Elicitation in Experiments.

Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions Immune responses after fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine using newly developed intradermal jet injectors: a randomized controlled trial in Cuba.

The World Health Organization recommends that, as part of the new polio endgame, a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV be introduced by the end of in all countries using only oral poliovirus vaccine OPV. We evaluated performance of two newly developed intradermal -only jet injectors and compared the immune response induced by fIPV with that induced by full-dose IPV. Children between 12 and 20 months of age, who had previously received two doses of OPV, were enrolled in Camaguey, Cuba.

Subjects received a single dose of IPV either full-dose IPV intramuscularly with needle and syringe or fIPV intradermally administered with one of two new injectors or with BCG needle or a conventional needle-free injector. Serum was tested for presence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies on day 0 pre-IPV and on days 3, 7 and 21 post-vaccination. Complete data were available from Baseline median antibody titers were , , and for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

The immune response induced with one new injector was similar to BCG needle and to the conventional injector; and superior to the other new injector. No safety concerns were identified. One of the two new injectors demonstrated its ability to streamline intradermal fIPV administration, however, further investigations are needed to assess the potential contribution of fIPV in the polio endgame plan.

Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children. The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis HVA has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age.

To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children At concentrations lower than 0.

The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Enhanced immunity in intradermal vaccination by novel hollow microneedles. However, a critical issue associated with ID vaccination is the precise delivery of solution in the upper dermis, which ensures enhanced immunity. We fabricated a hollow microneedle unit made of poly-glycolic acid by injection molding and bonding, and created a dedicated prototype injector. To ensure ID delivery of solution, the injected site was macroscopically and microscopically examined.

Serum immunoglobulin G antibody production was measured by enzyme immunoassay and compared in groups of rats following either ID delivery with microneedles or SC administration with a G stainless needle of graded vaccine doses. The unit used a tandem array of six microneedles, each with a side delivery hole, and a conduit inside for solution.

Microneedles installed in the injector punctured the skin with the aid of a spring. Injection of solution formed a wheal due to ID distribution. Histologically, a wedge-shaped skin defect in the upper skin corresponded to each puncture site. The microneedle unit presented here delivered solution intradermally without any difficulty and evoked antibody responses against viruses even with the reduced vaccine volume.

Our findings confirm promising results of ID delivery as an immunogenic option to enhance vaccination efficacy. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future? Wieten, R. Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations.

Lower-dose and. Transdermal and intradermal delivery of therapeutic agents: application of physical technologies. Advancements in science combined with the need for diverse drug delivery modalities have introduced a variety of transdermal and intradermal products for existing drugs at a fraction of the cost of new drug development Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese. Full Text Available Elicited imitation EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it.

Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview OPI Lonsdale and Christensen , Matsushita and Lonsdale , Millard , Thompson This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language.

We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test.

We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work. Efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction - Conventional and high-frequency ultrasound monitoring results. Cellulite affects the majority of women and is an unacceptable cosmetic defect.

Therefore, effective methods for cellulite reduction are being sought. Intradermal mesotherapy is one of such methods. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction, using conventional and high-frequency ultrasound. Twenty-one women with cellulite underwent a series of intradermal mesotherapy procedures. The following parameters were assessed: thickness of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, echogenicity of dermis and the surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction.

Intradermal mesotherapy reduced severity of cellulite. The surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction and hypodermis thickness decreased significantly as compared to baseline. There were no statistically significant changes in epidermis or dermis thickness, body weight and the BMI. Intradermal mesotherapy offers effective cellulite reduction.

It is a simple and safe treatment, which makes it popular. Further research in mesotherapy is essential due to a limited number of published studies. Ultrasound is a useful method to monitor intradermal mesotherapy and assess its efficacy. Comparison of the intradermal irritant threshold concentrations of nine allergens from two different manufacturers in clinically nonallergic dogs in the USA. The intradermal irritant threshold concentration for many allergens is unknown. To determine the intradermal irritant threshold concentration ITC of nine allergens from two different manufacturers.

Twenty privately owned clinically nonallergic dogs. A subjective score of 3 or 4 by either investigator at either timed reading was considered positive. If both concentrations resulted in positive reactions, two additional dilutions were performed. Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture.

The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively. Expert Panel Elicitation. Jensen, M. Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources.

While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project.

The results show an unusual low variation between the experts. Eliciting Sound Memories. Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation.

In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

Roukens Guy ; A. Vossen Ann ; P. Bredenbeek Peter ; J. Visser Leo. An alternative route of administration with reduced amounts of vaccine but without loss of vaccine efficacy would boost vaccination programmes. Methods and Findings:A randomized,. Elicited vs.

We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost. Validation of the cephalosporin intradermal skin test for predicting immediate hypersensitivity: a prospective study with drug challenge.

Cephalosporin is a major offending agent in terms of drug hypersensitivity along with penicillin. Cephalosporin intradermal skin tests IDTs have been widely used; however, their validity for predicting immediate hypersensitivity has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of cephalosporin intradermal skin testing before administration of the drug.

We prospectively conducted IDTs with four cephalosporins, one each of selected first-, second-, third-, or fourth-generation cephalosporins: ceftezol; cefotetan or cefamandole; ceftriaxone or cefotaxime; and flomoxef, respectively, as well as with penicillin G. After the skin test, whatever the result, one of the tested cephalosporins was administered intravenously and the patient was carefully observed. We recruited patients who required preoperative cephalosporins. However, none of responders had immediate hypersensitivity reactions after a challenge dose of the same or different cephalosporin, which were positive in the skin test.

Four patients who suffered generalized urticaria and itching after challenge gave negative skin tests for the corresponding drug. Routine skin testing with a cephalosporin before its administration is not useful for predicting immediate hypersensitivity because of the extremely low sensitivity and PPV of the skin test CRIS registration no.

Township Administered Roads. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS , mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard. Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome.

In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect.

We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition.

Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery.

The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: mesotherapy hazard. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the subcutaneous adipose tissue into the circulation when injected.

University medical school in Japan. Further studies of the diagnostic significance and immunological mechanisms of this phenomenon are needed. For clinical application, especially during contact screening, QFT-G should be evaluated while keeping in mind the possible influence of prior PPD intradermal injection. Intradermal invasive lobular carcinoma presenting: Not everything in the skin is benign. In this case report, the history and imaging of two patients with invasive lobular carcinoma ILC in the skin are presented, followed by a discussion of both benign and malignant intradermal findings on breast ultrasound.

Although the majority of dermal findings are benign, these cases are a reminder that malignancy can manifest within the skin. The purpose of presenting these cases together is to remind breast imagers of the importance of considering malignancy in the differential diagnosis of intradermal lesions on breast ultrasound, especially in special circumstances such as a personal history of breast cancer or associated clinical findings.

The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial. Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis.

Sodium cromoglicate SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine.

The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate SCG , a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis.

Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements. Syndecan-1 is required to maintain intradermal fat and prevent cold stress. Full Text Available Homeostatic temperature regulation is fundamental to mammalian physiology and is controlled by acute and chronic responses of local, endocrine and nervous regulators.

Here, we report that loss of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, causes a profoundly depleted intradermal fat layer, which provides crucial thermogenic insulation for mammals. The metabolic phenotype in mutant mice, including reduced liver glycogen, is rescued by housing at thermoneutrality, suggesting that reduced insulation in cool temperatures underlies the observed phenotypes.

We find that syndecan-1, which functions as a facultative lipoprotein uptake receptor, is required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Intradermal fat shows highly dynamic differentiation, continuously expanding and involuting in response to hair cycle and ambient temperature. This physiology probably confers a unique role for Sdc1 in this adipocyte sub-type.

Our study indicates that disruption of intradermal adipose tissue development results in cold stress and complex metabolic pathology. Immunogenicity to poliovirus type 2 following two doses of fractional intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: A novel dose sparing immunization schedule. The global removal of oral poliovirus type 2 was successfully implemented in May We conducted a literature review and contacted corresponding authors of recent studies with fractional-dose IPV fIPV , one-fifth of intramuscular dose administered intradermally , to conduct additional type 2 immunogenicity analyses of two fIPV doses compared with one full-dose IPV.

In response to the current IPV shortage, a schedule of two fIPV doses at ages 6 and 14weekshas been endorsed by technical oversight committees and has been introduced in some affected countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Cosmeceutical effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Kombucha tea by intradermal administration in the skin of aged mice. Natural ingredients have been always an interesting approach to prolong youthful appearance of skin.

One of the natural compounds is Kombucha tea KT , which has been mainly used as an energy drink in Asian countries for a long time. Previous reports indicated that it has pharmaceutical and favorable wound repairing effects. The beneficial properties of KT are thought to be mainly due to the presence of fermentation products such as flavonoids and other polyphenols with inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects.

These properties prompted us to study the anti-aging potential of KT and investigate its effective fraction in aged mice, METHODS: Kombucha tea was fractionated into chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate, and flavonoid content was determined. Young and old mice were used as control. KT ethyl acetate fraction KEAf , which had the highest flavonoid content, was intradermally administered to old mice.

No sensitivity or irritation was observed. This finding suggested that KEAf can be a suitable candidate as a cosmetic product to improve aging-related skin abnormalities and regeneration of aged skin. Constructive Preference Elicitation.

Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates.

Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization.

In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome WS.

To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS age years , 10 typically developing children age years , and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…. Five volunteers were placebo recipients. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Immunotherapy in viral warts with intradermal Bacillus Calmette—Guerin vaccine versus intradermal tuberculin purified protein derivative: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness and safety in a tertiary care center in Eastern India.

Conclusion: Both intradermal Bacillus Calmette—Guerin and tuberculin purified protein derivative hold promise in the treatment of viral warts. Bacillus Calmette—Guerin may be more effective, though it had more adverse events in our study. Intradermal influenza vaccination of healthy adults using a new microinjection system: a 3-year randomised controlled safety and immunogenicity trial.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal vaccination provides direct and potentially more efficient access to the immune system via specialised dendritic cells and draining lymphatic vessels. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety during 3 successive years of different dosages of a trivalent, inactivated, split-virion vaccine against seasonal influenza given intradermally using a microinjection system compared with an intramuscular control vaccine.

Methods In a randomised, partially blinded, controlled study, healthy volunteers aged 18 to 57 years at enrolment received three annual vaccinations of intradermal or intramuscular vaccine. Randomisation lists in Year 1 were stratified for site.

Randomisation lists in Years 2 and 3 were stratified for site and by vaccine received in previous years to ensure the inclusion of a comparable number of subjects in a vaccine group at each centre each year. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each vaccination.

Safety was assessed throughout the study. Safety of the intradermal and intramuscular vaccinations was comparable in each year of the study. Injection site erythema and swelling was more common with the intradermal route. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of patients each: Group A, patients tested between and prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in and following hurricanes.

Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Posthurricane patients had This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

Muzzle imprint mark: a patterned injury which may be constituted of intradermal blood extravasations. The muzzle imprint mark in contact shots is usually regarded as a patterned pressure abrasion depicting the barrel end as well as adjacent constructional components of the weapon. Due to parching after exposure to air, the affected skin assumes a brown color, especially along the contours of the impacting structures.

Apart from this well-known type of epidermal damage, the imprint mark may also be formed by intradermal hemorrhages. In some cases, these intracutaneous bleedings manifest themselves as circular, curved or straight reddish lines mirroring the surface relief of the weapon's muzzle end. To estimate the frequency of skin hematomas in muzzle imprints, 35 consecutive contact shots to the head temple, forehead, submental and occipital region were evaluated.

In 3 cases, the muzzle imprint mark exclusively consisted of intracutaneous bruises surrounding the bullet entrance hole. In 14 cases, the muzzle imprint was composed of both excoriations and intradermal hematomas. Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer NMSC due to the long interval i.

Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses. The ideal tattoo pigment for labeling of skin biopsy sites for NMSC requires i invisibility under ambient light, ii fluorescence under a selective light source, iii a finite intradermal retention time ca.

Herein, we introduce cross-linked fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles c-FSNPs as a "finite tattoo" pigment, with optimized photophysical properties and intradermal retention time to achieve successful in vivo finite tattooing. Fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles encapsulate a fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly[5-methoxy 3-sulfopropoxy -1,4-phenylenevinylene] MPS-PPV , into a core via a supramolecular synthetic approach. The nm sized c-FSNPs display an ideal intradermal retention time ca.

In addition, the c-FSNPs induce undetectable inflammatory responses after tattooing. Wide variations in the types of pain and response to analgesic pharmacotherapy mean that a variety of treatment strategies are needed. One approach is mesotherapy intradermal therapy.

This consists of microinjections into the skin and is ideally suited to the management of localized pain. Advantages include increasing the duration of drug activity, reduced risk of adverse events and interactions, and possible synergy with other therapies.

Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with anot Kinetics of Leptospira interrogans infection in hamsters after intradermal and subcutaneous challenge. Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by highly motile, helically shaped bacteria that penetrate the skin and mucous membranes through lesions or abrasions, and rapidly disseminate throughout the body.

Although the intraperitoneal route of infection is widely used to experimentally inoculate hamsters, this challenge route does not represent a natural route of infection. Here we describe the kinetics of disease and infection in hamster model of leptospirosis after subcutaneous and intradermal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L Histopathologic changes in and around the kidney, including glomerular and tubular damage and interstitial inflammatory changes, began on day 5, and preceded deterioration in renal function as measured by serum creatinine.

Weight loss, hemoconcentration, increased absolute neutrophil counts ANC in the blood and hepatic dysfunction were first noted on day 6. Vascular endothelial growth factor, a serum marker of sepsis severity, became elevated during the later stages of infection. The burden of infection, as measured by quantitative PCR, was highest in the kidney and peaked on day 5 after intradermal challenge and on day 6 after subcutaneous challenge.

Compared to subcutaneous challenge, intradermal challenge resulted in a lower burden of infection in both the kidney and liver on day 6, lower ANC and less weight loss on day 7. The intradermal and subcutaneous challenge routes result in significant differences in the kinetics of dissemination and disease after challenge with L. These results provide new information regarding infection kinetics in the hamster model of leptospirosis. Intradermal injection of PPD as a novel approach of immunotherapy in anogenital warts in pregnant women.

Immunotherapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts was used through different modalities including intralesional injection of purified protein derivative PPD , which is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, used for testing exposure to tuberculin protein, either from a previous vaccination or from the environment.

This method is used to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach of intradermal injection of PPD in the treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women, aged years, and presented with anogenital warts were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with weekly injections of PPD given intradermally in the forearms, and evaluated for the response regularly. HPV type-6 was the predominant genotype Nineteen Three 7.

Side effects were minimal and insignificant. Treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women with intradermal injection of PPD was found to be a unique, safe, and effective modality of immunotherapy. Interrupted or continuous- intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars. Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring.

We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male.

Their mean age was The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9. Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7—11 months after operation mean: 9. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques.

Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors. Effect of intradermal human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase on random pattern flaps in rats.

Studies have focused on enhancing flap viability using superoxide dismutase SOD , but only a few used SOD from human origin, and most gave the compound systemically. We evaluated the ability of SOD to improve random skin flap survival using human recombinant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase Hr-CuZnSOD in variable doses, injected intradermally into the flap. Seventy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Cephalic random pattern flaps were elevated on their backs and intradermal injections of different dosages of Hr-CuZnSOD were given 15 minutes before surgery.

Flap survival was evaluated by fluorescein fluorescence. Flap survival in all treated groups was significantly better than in the controls. Effect analysis of intradermal hyaluronic acid injection to treat enlarged facial pores. To investigate the clinical application and efficacy of intradermal injection of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid LMW-HA for treating enlarged facial pores.

From January to May , 42 subjects who sought aesthetic treatment underwent intradermal injection of LMW-HA to improve enlarged facial pores. For each treatment, 2. The treatment was repeated times with an interval of 1 to 1. Statistical analysis was used to compare the degree of enlargement of facial pores before and after injection. The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were recorded. The enlarged facial pores before and after treatment were categorized and subjected to the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test.

The difference was statistically significant Pinjection sites in the subjects who sought aesthetic treatment. The overall satisfaction rate was Intradermal injection of LMW-HA can significantly improve skin texture, reduce pore size, and enhance skin radiance. The injection technique was simple, safe, and effective and could easily be extended to clinical practice. Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality. Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus AIV infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks.

However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response.

Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks. Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine CpG oligodeoxynucleotide ODN adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity.

Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination. Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks.

The comparative performance of the single intradermal test and the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations of differing potencies. In national bovine tuberculosis BTB control programmes, testing is generally conducted using a single source of bovine purified protein derivative PPD tuberculin.

Alternative tuberculin sources should be identified as part of a broad risk management strategy as problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted. This study was conducted to compare the impact of different potencies of a single bovine PPD tuberculin on the field performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test SICTT and single intradermal test SIT.

Test results were compared based on reactor-status and changes in skin-thickness at the bovine tuberculin injection site. There was a significant difference in the number of reactors detected using the high and low potency tuberculins. Tuberculin of different potencies will affect reactor disclosure rates, confounding between-year or between-country comparisons.

Independent checks of tuberculin potency are an important aspect of quality control in national BTB control programmes. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences. Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery.

Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described.

Methods: A discrete-choice experiment DCE was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each Full Text Available Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response.

Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide ZnO nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods.

Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens.

Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery. The nano-rods' length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Field study on the safety and efficacy of intradermal versus intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one.

As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions ISR and rectal temperatures were assessed. ISRs were minor in V1. After both vaccinations, no adverse impact on appetite was observed and mean rectal temperatures remained within physiological range. ADWG during the fattening period was significantly higher in vaccinated groups V1: Vaccinated pigs had a significantly reduced mean extent of LL compared with CG.

V1 was superior in reducing the extent and prevalence of LL compared with V2. These results reveal that a needle-free intradermal vaccination is safe and efficacious in reducing both the prevalence and extent of lung lesions, as well as in improving performance parameters, in a farrow-to-finish farm with a late onset of M hyopneumonia e infection. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Mesotherapy provides general practitioners with another tool for the treatment of local pain. However, it is important to provide patients with full details of the pros and cons of this approach and obtain informed patient consent. Full Text Available New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response.

We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. We also observed a rapid and transient granulocyte recruitment and the release of IL-6 and IL-1RA, followed by a persistent phase involving inflammatory monocytes. This systemic inflammation was confirmed by molecular signatures, such as upregulations of IL-6 and TNF pathways and acute phase response signaling.

Such comprehensive approaches improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal orchestration of vaccine- elicited immune response, in a live-attenuated vaccine model, and thus contribute to rational vaccine development. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride.

Sequential treatment with intradermal incision intracision and 2,nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars. Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges. Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision.

Intradermal incision technique intracision can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing. To develop a new intradermal antigen delivery system by coating microneedle arrays with lipid bilayer-coated, antigen-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles LB-MSN-OVA.

Microneedle arrays coated with LB-MSN-OVA were successfully developed and shown to be suitable for intradermal delivery of the encapsulated protein antigen. Skin reactions to human papillomavirus HPV 16 specific antigens intradermally injected in healthy subjects and patients with cervical neoplasia. Rob P. We have tested the safety and feasibility of a synthetic long peptide-based HPVspecific skin test to detect cellular immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in vivo.

Vial usage, device dead space, vaccine wastage, and dose accuracy of intradermal delivery devices for inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV. Intradermal delivery of a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV offers potential benefits compared to intramuscular IM delivery, including possible cost reductions and easing of IPV supply shortages.

Objectives of this study were to assess intradermal delivery devices for dead space, wastage generated by the filling process, dose accuracy, and total number of doses that can be delivered per vial. Devices tested included syringes with staked fixed needles autodisable syringes and syringes used with intradermal adapters , a luer-slip needle and syringe, a mini-needle syringe, a hollow microneedle device, and disposable-syringe jet injectors with their associated filling adapters.

Each device was used to withdraw 0. Both vial and device were weighed before and after filling and again after expulsion of liquid to record change in volume at each stage of the process. Data were used to calculate the number of doses that could potentially be obtained from multidose vials.

Results show wide variability in dead space, dose accuracy, overall wastage, and total number of doses that can be obtained per vial among intradermal delivery devices. Eppenberger-Castori, B. Gloor, A. Perren, E. TMB was assessed using the oncomine mutation load assay. Results: MSI-H was present in 2. Based on concurrent biomarker expression, TMB-H patients might further profit from checkpoint inhibition, while other strategies inducing immune response might be an option for the remaining majority of patients.

Combinations of biomarkers indicating potential immunotherapy response along with TMB can assist the selection of target groups as part of an individualized, precision oncology approach. Predicting morphological classifications of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PDAC using deep learning. We aim to assess if deep learning can automate our system to enhance reproducibility and accessibility to pathologists for patient care.

Tiling was automated to generate a total of 1. Five-fold cross validation approach was used to assess the performance of our classifier in predicting the A and B morphologic subtypes of our entire cohort. Results: Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering and dimensionality reduction, histological features, defined by deep learning feature vectors DLFV generated by convoluted neural network CNN developed in our department2, were used to subgroup PDAC that mirrored our morphological subtypes.

This could provide rapid survival data and act as a surrogate to tailor targeted therapy. Crino, A. Parisi, L. Bernardoni, M. De Bellis, E. Torresani, S. Ammendola, S. Marletta, A. Gabrielli, M. Conti Bellocchi, E. Tumour grade was classified according to the WHO Through the needle biopsy TTNB specimens.

A new procedure in the setting of pre-operative histological diagnosis of the cystic lesions in the pancreas and retroperitoneum. Cavallo, S. Crino, L. Bernardoni, A. Parisi, M. Mastrosimini, A. Gabbrielli, M. The clinical, serological, imaging and cyto-histological data were collected for the selected cases. The aspecific histological characteristics of the biopsy prevented the conclusive diagnosis in 15 cases Conclusion: TTNB is a reliable diagnostic tool for the pre-operative diagnosis of cystic lesions in the pancreas and retroperitoneum and it allows to avoid unnecessary surgery.

However, due to the histological heterogeneity of the cyst wall, pathologists must be aware that TTNB microforceps could miss epithelial dysplasia or sample non diagnostic areas, favouring misdiagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach helps reduce misdiagnosis. Serrated polyposis syndrome: morphologic and molecular heterogeneity of dysplasia-carcinoma progression. We aim to characterize the pathologic and molecular progression of SPS neoplasia.

Results: SPS incidence was 1. Our results support the conclusion that progression of carcinogenesis in SPS involves heterogenous molecular pathways. Computer-assisted hot-spot selection for tumour budding assessment in colorectal cancer. Ciompi, I.

Zlobec, A. Lugli, M. Vieth, R. Kirsch, J. Detection of the hot-spot to score TB is based on visual inspection, hindering reproducibility of this important factor. We present an algorithm that can potentially assist pathologists in this task. Methods: We used a previously developed algorithm for the detection of tumour buds in pan-cytokeratin stained whole slide images, calculating the number of buds for each location using a circle with 0.

From these numbers, density heatmaps were produced. The algorithm was applied to slides from Bern University hospital, in which hot-spots and tumour buds were visually identified. Results: Heat maps were created and we located the hand-selected hotspot and noted the associated TB number.

The differences and similarities between computer identified and manually selected hot-spots were visually assessed as well as via histograms. The full results will be presented during the conference. Conclusion: The presented algorithm can assist the pathologist in selecting the hot-spot with the highest tumour bud count with more ease at low magnification and can help to reduce the high inter-observer variability among pathologists in scoring tumour budding.

Prognostic value of tumour deposits for disease-free survival in patients with stage III colon cancer: a post hoc analysis of the idea France phase III trial prodige-gercor. Delattre, R. Cohen, J. Henriques, J. Emile, F. Bibeau, J. Taieb, C. Louvet, D. Vernerey, T.

In the. TNM7 CC staging, their presence is only considered in the absence of lymph node metastases. In the era of personalized duration of histopathological criteria-based adjuvant therapy, this could potential lead to a loss of the prognosis prediction accuracy.

Results: Of patients, 9. Deep neural networks and supervised machine learning for the screening and classification of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Knuuttila, S. Blom, N. Samaletdin, M. Here we assess the performance of a pathologist-trained algorithm in the search for and grading of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease IBD. The resulting algorithm was applied to a validation set of slides and results were compared to pathologist performance. Discrepant results were reviewed by an expert panel.

Results: The algorithm was consistently able to find areas suspicious for dysplasia. The algorithm could also differentiate between the classes 'indefinite for dysplasia', 'LG dysplasia', 'HG dysplasia' and 'Carcinoma budding', with the diagnosis for carcinoma being aided by the immediate vicinity of a class for 'reactive stroma'.

Review of the discrepant diagnoses revealed the inconsistencies of human performance on the one hand and limitations of the trained algorithm on other hand. Conclusion: Our algorithm outperforms pathologists in both speed and consistency, but is limited in scope, and requires a pathologist to make the definitive diagnosis for carcinoma. Nevertheless, with the number of samples continuing to grow, it provides a useful tool for the screening and classification of dysplasia in IBD.

With such tools, training pathologists to become 'diagnostic machines' is questionable as a vision for the future of pathology. Markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in early colorectal carcinoma compared to adenoma and adenoma with pseudoinvasion. Janeiro, L. Almarzouki, V. Stavrakos, L. Clinically, there is an observed link between post-operative infection and metastasis of primary GC to the peritoneum, however the mechanisms behind are poorly-understood.

Methods: We aimed to show the effects and mechanisms of LPS-induced TLR4-signaling on peritoneal metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma, as a proposed mechanism for post-surgical infection induced cancer recurrence. Conclusion: These studies have shown the relevance of TLR4 and the TLR4 signalling cascade in potentiating metastatic adhesion and spread to the peritoneum upon activation. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinicopathological, histogenesis and molecular characteristics as well as prognostic markers of AFPGC.

Finally, the relationships between each factor and clinicopathologic features as well as the overall survival time were analysed. Hyaline globule and pink amorphous substance were often present. Of the three diagnostic indictors, SALL4 was the most sensitive marker Besides, 38 patients Cases with prominent hyaline globules had a significantly poor prognosis. A pathological risk score based on poorly differentiated clusters, tumour budding and number of harvested loco-regional lymph nodes predicts prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer.

Burato, S. Pecori, A. Tomezzoli, C. Pedrazzani, V. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of several clinical-pathological variables in stage II CRC. Methods: A cohort of surgically resected stage II CRC patients who did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment was selected. Data on cancer specific survival CSS was available in all cases.

A risk score, by assigning 1 point to the presence and 0 points to the absence of each of these variables was formulated. These features may be helpful to select high risk patients who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms: a 10 year review with reclassification and outcomes. Oliveira, C. Ivanova, P. Methods: Retrospective study, in a year period, of 29 cases of AMN.

The cases were analysed for gender, age, initial symptoms, TNM classification when applicable, surgical approach, complications, survival rate and recurrence. Conclusion: In reclassified cases there was no significant change in both prognosis and disease-free survival despite pT stating , however follow-up is short. Riefolo, F. Vasuri, E. Bonora, L. Mastracci, H. Krishnadath, M.

Seri, R. Fiocca, S. Mattioli, A. Histological variables included: tumour classification according to WHO and Lauren, concomitant intestinal metaplasia, tumour stage, vascular invasion. IHC was performed for Cytokeratin 7 and 20 and CDX2 for diagnosis and tumour classification, as well as for p53 and p Results: p53 was hyperexpressed in 46 Conclusion: IHC for p53 and p16 seems to be an independent prognostic factor in patients with AdGEJ, and it could be proposed in the pathological report.

Cappellesso, F. Cappello, T. Sanavia, D. Serafin, G. Cortese, P. Del Fiore, S. Mocellin, A. Dei Tos. Overall and disease-free survival analyses were performed considering clinico-pathological data, TAMr gene expression and Tils8. Conclusion: TAMr are promising prognostic markers for advanced melanoma. Moreover, studies reported the molecule UNC as a specific MerTK inhibitor, suggesting that MerTK receptor could also represent a potential therapeutic target for advanced melanoma.

T-cell receptor expression in cutaneous benign and malignant lymphoid infiltrates in comparison with T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and its diagnostic utility in borderline cases. Hrochova, D. Histopathological appearance can overlap and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement evaluation is not always accessible. Expression of different TCR antibodies is studied in cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates.

Methods: Representative cases of reactive and malignant lymphoproliferations were collected. Separate group of lesions with borderline morphology was selected for comparison. All benign lesions were polyclonal.

TCR-BF1 positivity in borderline cutaneous lymphoproliferations can raise or support the suspicion of malignancy, nevertheless, confirmation by TCR gene rearrangement and careful clinical correlation is still advisable. Biecek, P. Donizy, M. Matkowski, A. We aimed to determine clinicopathological significance of ROCK1 and 2 expression in skin melanoma. Obtained results were statistically analysed together with other clinicopathological characteristics.

Moreover, there was a predilection for low ROCK1 and 2 reactivity in ulcerated tumours and nodular melanomas. Decreased ROCK2 immunoexpression in melanoma cells was associated with shorter melanoma-specific and melanoma-free survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis, but did not independently predict prognosis in a multivariable model. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ROCK signalling may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma and that ROCK1 and 2 are downregulated in aggressive and late-stage tumours, which is contrary to most reports concerning other cancers.

Therapeutic inhibition of ROCK kinases in skin melanoma may thus be ineffective. Clinical relevance of tumoral indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and PD-L1 co-expression in Merkel cell carcinomas. Wu, J. Kopczynski, M. Pieniazek, D. Miller, J. Rys, M. The cytoplasmic IDO1 staining was done using the H-score. Systems biomarker discovery implicates TEAD3 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma perineural invasion. Perineural invasion PNI is a significant risk factor for recurrence, however detection can be limited.

Clusters are ranked by their correlation with PNI, and candidate biomarkers in top clusters are identified based on intracluster centrality, differential expression between tumours with and without PNI, and expression in normal tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression GTEx project.

Results: We identify 56 gene clusters ranging in size from 31 to genes. Secondary syphilis: three-case with different clinico-pathological presentations. The UK was one of five countries that shows more than double the number of cases over the last 10 years. Methods: This study aims to highlight the increasing challenge in the diagnosis of secondary syphilis by presenting three cases with different presentations.

Results: The first case was a year-old gentleman complaining of fever, chest pain and hearing loss. Followed by the eruption of extensive papular rash over the trunk, palms and soles. Pulmonary scan showed bilateral lung nodules. Histology showed localised granulomatous inflammation with plasma cells and few eosinophils.

The second case was a year-old lady presented with scaly sarcoidal-like nodular lesions on face and chest without mucous membrane involvement. Biopsy showed non-specific perifollicular granulomatous lympho-histiocytic infiltrate with plasma cells. The third case was a year-old homosexual man developed oral thrush and juicy scaly nodular rash on trunk sparing palms and soles with generalized lymphadenopathy.

HIV test was negative and histopathology was non-specific. Conclusion: Secondary Syphilis can present with non-specific clinical and histological features. Clinical, histological and serological correlation is pivotal for early diagnosis. Indolent cutaneous T-cell lymphoid proliferations of the nose region - a novel diagnostic algorithm and molecular description.

Seliga, K. Tysarowski, M. Prochorec-Sobieszek, G. The study presents a novel diagnostic approach for these rare entities. Methods: Two patients p1, p2 present solitary nasal skin lesions. Skin punch biopsies were obtained with histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation, which were inconclusive.

Results: Histopathologically, both cases were characterized by a diffuse focal-epidermotropic dermal proliferation of small to medium-sized lymphocytes. Subsequent FCM showed distinct origin of pathological lymphocytes. The monoclonal nature of the pathologic T-lymphocyte population was confirmed by demonstrating the lack of clonality of TCR Vbeta on their surface in both cases. We report a novel FOXP1 fusion, which requires confirmation in a larger study. Godschachner, M. Bergovec, J.

Igrec, S. Scheipl, K. Kashofer, A. Leithner, J. Szkandera, B. To get further insights into the staining profile with the pan-TRK antibody we performed immunohistochemistry on various soft tissue sarcomas and correlated our results with molecular testing. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed from until at the Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz retrieved from the surgical pathology files and consultation cases of one of the authors.

Positive cases underwent next generation sequencing NGS. Results: Immunohistochemical staining was observed in 18 4. Carda, E. Mayordomo, F. Giner, R. Noguera, S. Navarro, I. Nude mice xenografts offer a valuable method to maintain tumours, retaining the histological and genetic characteristics. Since we have produced a tissue bank of xenografted human tumours. Methods: Tumour tissue is inoculated subcutaneously in the back of the animal, under sterile conditions 1—2 mm3 of tumour tissue.

Nude mice are kept in germ-free conditions complying with all ethical regulations. The tumour is followed until it reaches 1—2 cm in diameter, and then transferred to new animals. Material obtained is kept for histology, cell culture, EM, and frozen.

Several cell lines in vitro have been established. Conclusion: Sarcoma xenografts in nude mice provide a suitable model for the study of tumour morphology, biology and molecular genetics. Primary and metastatic dedifferentiated malignant melanoma is significantly under-recognized: analysis of 22 cases. To date, 38 cases have been reported. We describe 22 cases expanding their phenotypic and genotypic spectrum.

Histological and immunophenotypic findings were reviewed. Results: Age range was years median, Fourteen patients were males. Twenty tumours were metastases and two were primary subungual, anorectal. Initial diagnosis was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma 10 , unclassified malignancy 5 , other sarcomas 2 , metastatic melanoma 2 and reactive 1.

In only two cases was dedifferentiated melanoma mentioned. History of melanoma was positive in 13 cases. Histology was predominantly undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma Unusual patterns include osteo-chondroblastic, tenosynovial giant cell tumour-like and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma-like. Of 4 wild type tumours, one showed NF1 mutation by extended testing. Conclusion: This extended follow-up study highlights the phenotypic plasticity of dedifferentiated malignant melanoma and indicates significant underrecognition of this aggressive disease among general surgical pathologists.

UPS and other unclassified high-grade sarcomas occurring at unusual sites such as the axilla, inguinal area and the lateral neck should alert to the possibility of dedifferentiated melanoma, even in the absence of positive clinical history. Genotyping represents a valuable adjunct to confirm diagnosis. Atypical pleomorphic lipomatous tumours: a clinicopathologic analysis of 55 cases. Diagnosis and distinction from pleomorphic liposarcoma can be challenging due to its wide-ranging morphology.

We present the clinicopathological features of a large case series to further characterise this emerging entity. Methods: 55 cases were identified from the consultation files. Clinical and follow up information were obtained from referring institutions. Results: Patients were 20 women and 35 men; median age was 59 years range: Tumours were variably composed of atypical and pleomorphic cells, adipocytes, and lipoblasts, often showing infiltrative growth, myxoid or collagenous stroma, and multinucleated floret cells.

Mitoses were infrequent. Follow up in 15 patients so far median: 33 months revealed no local recurrences or metastases. Conclusion: Despite its frequently infiltrative growth, nuclear pleomorphism, and hypercellularity which can mimic sarcoma, atypical pleomorphic lipomatous tumour behaves in an indolent fashion. Immunohistochemistry for CD34, S, desmin and Rb demonstrating loss can support the diagnosis. Diagnostic findings and clinical behaviour of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features NIFTP in a large Iberian retrospective series.

Zafon, E. Anda, N. Sanchez-Gomez, G. Carnero, A. Blanco, I. Mancha, L. Capel, J. Maravall, J. Sanz-Gallur, M. Ultrasound report was available in , 56 of them with suspicious findings Pre-surgical fine needle FN cytology or biopsy was performed in cases Undetermined Bethesda categories were the most prevalent No recurrence was identified.

Incidence and clinicopathological features of non-invasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features NIFTP in a large Iberian retrospective series. Cameselle-Teijeiro, A. Ugalde, P. Fernandez-Seara, H. Quiceno, I. Gomez de la Riva, M. Gonzalez, S. Chao, E. Meseguer, J. Paricio, C. Furthermore, histological diagnostic criteria have changed recently.

Objective: To determine the incidence and histological features of NIFTP in Iberian countries applying the original and new diagnostic criteria. Methods: Sixteen institutions from Spain and Portugal joined the study. Incidence and histopathological findings of cases considered finally as NIFTP following the original and the new diagnostic criteria were recorded. Overall incidence among PTC was 4. Thirty-five cases measured between 5 and 10 mm.

Average size was In 95 cases the whole lesion was studied, and in 97 the whole nodular margin. If new diagnostic criteria were applied, 39 cases There were no significant differences regarding the nuclear features when applying the different diagnostic criteria. The lesion was studied completely in more than half of the cases. Applying the new diagnostic criteria, Although that, no differences in nuclear features were observed.

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma — expanding spectrum of thyroid cancer with a distinct entity. However, there have been no additional cases reported so far. Methods: We retrieved four cases of primary thyroid tumours with cRCC-like appearance from the files of Ito Hospital, Tokyo, a large-volume thyroid centre. Results: There were 3 males and 1 female mean age 46 years without history of genetic disorders.

Histochemistry showed weak cytoplasmic colloidal iron staining. One patient developed locoregional recurrences and probable lung metastasis late after surgery. Conclusion: cRCC-like thyroid carcinoma revealed to be distinctive in histology and could be misdiagnosed as Hurthle cell carcinoma, HTT, and metastatic carcinoma in thyroid tumour pathology. Our cases were not in association with any finding of tuberous sclerosis complex.

Further characterization by immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis in this rare tumour is required to define its position in the histopathological classification. Distinct morphological and immunophenotypical features of cribriform-morular tumour of thyroid: towards a separate entity. In this study, we investigated morphology, immunoprofile and genetics of these tumours to further our understanding of this biologic entity.

Molecular studies to identify APC variants were performed in certain cases. The morules are positive for CK5 and CD5, and negative for p These findings suggest a different biological pathway for morule formation and can be used to aid diagnosis of this tumour. Further immunohistochemical and genetic studies would increase our understanding of this tumour leading to reclassification as a separate entity as cribriform-morular tumour of thyroid.

Invasion matters also in encapsulated conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. Akbulut, S. Dizbay Sak, N. Thyroiditis The enigmatic mixed medullary-follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: a comparison of 2 cases and a review of the literature. Methods: A 65year-old female and 60year-old male patients were followed at our institute since and for thyroid nodules.

Total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph node dissection were performed in both cases. Both lymph node metastasis had a mixture of papillary and medullary-like features. It has been recently questioned whether C-cells are endodermal-derived rather than neural-crest-derived, suggesting the ultimobranchial stem-cell as a possible common cell lineage for MMFTC.

The etiopathogenesis remains uncertain. Prognostic significance of oral dysplasia features — analysis of a preliminary cohort. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of individual histological features. This study aims to determine the prognostic significance of OED features in a preliminary cohort. Blind histological examination was undertaken to review the original diagnosis and identify the most prominent features from the WHO Classification for each case.

The prognostic significance of specific histological features was measured. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings reveal feature-specific risk of malignant progression in OED for the first time. These findings need to be explored on bigger cohorts to establish their true significance and provide useful prognostic information to aid management.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of never-smokers and never-drinkers show frequent PD-L1 expression and association of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes with favourable survival. Mulder, E. Gielgens, F. Kremer, S. Willems, E. Difference in 5-year survival of patients with and without expression of these biomarkers was determined using Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis. Results: The patients were on average This might have implications for the application of immunotherapy in this patient group.

A subgroup of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with unfavourable prognosis shows oxidative stress signatures and a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Huebbers, O. Siefer, U. Drebber, M. Odenthal, B. Hufbauer, D. Beutner, J. Klussmann, E. The objective was to further investigate these oxidative stress signatures and their possible relation to a mesenchymal like EMT phenotype. Frizzled 10 expression known to be regulated by retinoic acid was highly correlated to ALDH1A2 expression and inversely correlated to EMT and oxidative stress.

Our data implicate that subgroups of tumours might benefit from adjuvant treatment with retinoids, which should be further studied. Secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland a new entity: a case series. Alborch-Gil, E. Dacosta, O. Moscoso Miranda, S. Results: In our series, two patients were female with a median age of 43 years range The tumour was located in parotid gland.

All cases were treated with parotidectomy. Histologically the tumour showed solid, tubular and microcystic structures with abundant eosinophilic bubbly secretion. Neoplastic cells had eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm, occasionally with condensed material mucin and uniform, round nuclei with small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical stains were performed, the tumour cells were positive for CK7, mammaglobin and S In all the cases pan-NTRK immunohistochemistry was positive.

In only one patient distant metastases and local recurrence have been reported. Conclusion: Secretory carcinoma is a recently described tumour with distinctive morphology, immunohistochemistry and genetic profile. Nowadays, its presence is useful for diagnosis and specific treatment. Revisiting a case series of glomangiopericytomas: reassessing STAT6 value in differential diagnosis.

Farinha, J. Lobo, P. Lopes, C. Pinto, M. Teixeira, M. This prompted a thorough review of all published reports and re-evaluation of histology and immunohistochemistry in all cases from our Institute. Methods: Four cases were retrieved from our pathology archive. All the histological material and corresponding clinical files were re-examined.

New STAT6, beta-catenin and CD34 immunostains were performed on freshly cut formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Older stains were also reviewed. Literature review was conducted using PubMed. Results: Two patients were male. The age range was years. All cases displayed typical cytoarchitectural and immunohistochemical features of glomangiopericytomas, except for one showing moderate STAT6 nuclear positivity, both in tumoral and peritumoral tissues.

Being described as consistently negative in glomangiopericytomas and positive in solitary fibrous tumour SFT , our STAT6 yielded differential diagnosis issues. Nevertheless, our literature review disclosed rare STAT6-equivocal glomangiopericytomas. Furthermore, Ghaffar et al. This phenomenon might lead to misdiagnosis. A mutation in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene was found in this last case, confirming the diagnosis of glomangiopericytoma.

Conclusion: Glomangiopericytomas represent a diagnostic challenge. Cautious interpretation of STAT6 in patients with chronic rhinitis is advised. IDH2 R mutated sinonasal carcinoma: pathological and molecular assessment of 32 cases. Gloess, B. Xu, V. Vasudevaraja, A. Jungbluth, M. Snuderl, D. DNA methylation profiles were analysed by semisupervised hierarchical clustering and IDH2 wild-type sinonasal tumours were used for comparison. While no tumour had definitive features of ONB, two ethmoid carcinomas focally labelled for S sustentacular pattern suggesting the olfactory bulb origin.

Conclusion: IDH2 R mutated SNC are phenotypically, genetically and epigenetically remarkably similar suggesting that their biology and clinical behaviour might be primarily defined by their unique molecular signature. Clinical significance of ephrin receptors Ephs type-a and -b expression in thymic epithelial tumours. Sarantis, M. Bobos, I. Theochari, N. Tsoukalas, P. Alexandrou, D. Rontogianni, S.

Here, immunohistochemical EPHs type-A and -B expression in thymic epithelial tumours TETs was assessed and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Such findings suggest involvement of these RTKs in thymic neoplasia, as well as their potential utility as treatment targets. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumours with high prevalence of somatic malignant transformation: an experience from a single tertiary care cancer centre.

They account for approx. Methods: We have retrospective analysed clinic-pathological features of PMGCT cases, diagnosed over a period 10years from a single tertiary care oncology centre. Metastatic tumours to mediastinum were excluded. Secondary somatic malignancy was seen in 11 cases and six out of them either died or had progressive disease. Patient with somatic malignancy have aggressive clinical course, hence, extensive sampling and careful histopathological evaluation is recommended for definitive characterization.

Clinicopathological correlations of PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumours using two immunohistochemical assays. Rontogianni, P. Bobos, E. Dana, N. Tsoukalas, S. In our study, PD-L1 expression in TETs was assessed by two immunohistochemical assays and associations with clinicopathological parameters, as well as the concordance of the two assays were evaluated.

Conclusion: Epithelial PD-L1 expression in TETs is frequent, variable, significantly associated with histological subtype and less strongly with survival, suggesting a role in TET pathobiology. Discrepant scoring SP vs SP is noted and varies with cut-off values. Utility of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase MTAP immunohistochemistry in malignant pleural mesothelioma: correlation with CDKN2A genomic status and inter-assay agreement. Hughes, A. Nastase, A. Mandal, C. Brambilla, A.

Rice, J. Robertus, W. Cookson, M. Moffatt, A. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase MTAP has emerged as a potential cost-effective surrogate marker. Inter-assay agreement and correlation with genomic status however are currently uncertain. Inter-observer agreement was performed between two scorers. Focal staining was seen in By treating focal staining as positive, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were Based on available evidence, EPR and 2G4 clones could be used interchangeably and inter-observer agreement was good.

Financial and logistic considerations need to be taken into account prior to local implementation. Atypical mesothelial proliferation amp of the pleura: multidisciplinary approach, prognostic stratification and proposal of minimally invasive malignant pleural mesothelioma. Brambilla, P. Molyneaux, A. Robertus, S. Jordan, E. Lim, L. Lang-Lazdunski, S.

Begum, M. Dusmet, V. Anikin, S. Popat, W. We reviewed these cases with a view to improve early diagnosis of MPM. Methods: This is a retrospective study including consecutive cases of histologically confirmed AMP diagnosed at our institution , of which 35 Clinicopathological data were retrieved from an institutional mesothelioma database.

Prognostic variables predictive of overall survival OS were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Cases fulfilling the criteria of i adequate subpleural sampling either without invasion or invasion limited to fibrous pleura, ii no severe nuclear atypia, iii no necrosis, were associated with significantly improved median OS compared with those without Conclusion: AMP poses challenges to diagnosis and patient management as it encompasses a spectrum of benign and malignant mesothelial lesions.

We propose morphology-based criteria to stratify AMP into high and low risk groups. It is likely the former was the result of insufficient sampling whilst the latter represented minimally invasive MPM. This allows MPM to be diagnosed earlier in its natural history. Congenital pulmonary airway malformations with K-RAS mutations may have malignant potential. Hermelijn, D. Wijnen, R.

Rottier, J. Schnater, J. In this study, we analysed immunohistochemical expression patterns and molecular findings of adult lung tumour markers in CPAM. Intensity of immunohistochemical staining was quantitatively assessed in normal lung tissue, CPAM and mucinous proliferations MP in each sample. All 11 samples with mucinous proliferations harboured a K-RAS mutation. The normal, surrounding lung tissue showed no genetic alternations. These findings support the notion that a subset of CPAMs may be considered potentially pre-malignant lesions.

Can pulmonary sarcoidosis with severe fibrosis be considered as a severe form of lung sarcoidosis? Target: to study morphological and molecular biological particularities of lung sarcoidosis with severe fibrosis. Methods: A retrospective clinical and morphological analysis of open transthoracic 46 and transbronchial 10 lung biopsies and autopsy 2 cases from 58 patients with diagnosed lung sarcoidosis.

Serial paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, picrofuchsin Van Gieson. Conclusion: Pulmonary sarcoidosis with severe fibrosis can be considered as a severe form of lung sarcoidosis according to the differences of molecular profibrogenic activity of granuloma cells. Pezzuto, A. Pavan, G. Pasello, S. Frega, R. Polverosi, L. Evangelista, A. Fraia, C. Giraudo, M. Mammana, F. Rea, F. The histological analysis of PR is coded for other malignancies in which it seems to play a prognostic role.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed eight consecutive samples of Pancoast tumour surgically resected after induction chemo-radiotherapy. Radio-metabolic responses and radiomic evaluation were also reported and correlated with our data. No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusion: Based on our data, the histological evaluation of the PR does not correlate with the radiological, metabolic and radiomic findings, highlighting the crucial value of morphological analyses.

Data from radiomic analyses require larger case series. Duerbaum, B. Holz, M. Wittersheim, E. Binot, S. Merkelbach-Bruse, N. Friedrichs, A. Bosse, R. Buettner, A. With a steadily increasing number of cases, currently applied FISH-criteria can be time-consuming for the evaluating pathologist. Most importantly, all high-level amplified and negative cases remained the same. To prevent scoring-errors, we propose the following evaluation algorithm: After thorough examination of the tumour, 20 continuous nuclei are counted in the area with most MET-signals.

If the case is negative or high-level amplified, it can be signed out. If it fulfils the criteria for low- or intermediate-level amplification, another 40 cells in two different areas must be counted to reach a total of 60 cells.

Lunardi, F. Fortarezza, S. Vuljan, M. Mammana, A. Boscolo, L. Urso, G. Pasello, F. We aimed to determine the correlation between p14, morphology and immune microenvironment, to date still unknown. Methods: Diagnostic biopsies from 76 chemonaive MPM 54 epithelioid, 18 biphasic, 4 sarcomatoid were evaluated. Pathological assessment of histotype, necrosis, inflammation, grading, and mitosis was performed. No other statistically significant differences with morphological findings were found.

Larger case series are mandatory to validate our preliminary results thus carrying out more complete statistical tests also with clinical data. Pezzuto, C. Giraudo, E. Balestro, A. Fattori, M. Ohana, A. Labani, E. Cocconcelli, R. Polverosi, E. Faccioli, M.

Chenard, R. Kessler, S. Hirschi, F. Cinical data were also reviewed. Results: All cases with diagnosis of IPF, complete clinical information and available HRCT images patients: 81 explanted lungs and 20 VATS were independently evaluated by pathologists, radiologists and clinicians; they were then re-categorized after MDDs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the rate of IPF diagnoses appears to have been overestimated in the last decade.

The current knowledge and good practice of MDDs have significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy.

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