When converting between Buffer s and strings, a character encoding may be specified. If no character encoding is specified, UTF-8 will be used as the default. Many web pages and other document formats use UTF This is the default character encoding.
Unlike 'utf8' , each character in the string will be encoded using either 2 or 4 bytes. Each character is encoded using a single byte. Characters that do not fit into that range are truncated and will be mapped to characters in that range. Converting a Buffer into a string using one of the above is referred to as decoding, and converting a string into a Buffer is referred to as encoding. For binary-to-text encodings, the naming convention is reversed: Converting a Buffer into a string is typically referred to as encoding, and converting a string into a Buffer as decoding.
Whitespace characters such as spaces, tabs, and new lines contained within the baseencoded string are ignored. When creating a Buffer from a string, this encoding will also correctly accept regular baseencoded strings. When encoding a Buffer to a string, this encoding will omit padding. Data truncation may occur when decoding strings that do exclusively contain valid hexadecimal characters.
See below for an example. When encoding a string into a Buffer , this is equivalent to using 'latin1'. When decoding a Buffer into a string, using this encoding will additionally unset the highest bit of each byte before decoding as 'latin1'. Generally, there should be no reason to use this encoding, as 'utf8' or, if the data is known to always be ASCII-only, 'latin1' will be a better choice when encoding or decoding ASCII-only text.
It is only provided for legacy compatibility. See binary strings for more background on this topic. The name of this encoding can be very misleading, as all of the encodings listed here convert between strings and binary data. For converting between strings and Buffer s, typically 'utf-8' is the right choice. In Node. This means that while doing something like http. All TypedArray methods are available on Buffer s. There are two ways to create new TypedArray instances from a Buffer :.
When creating a Buffer using a TypedArray 's. The Buffer. Specifically, the TypedArray variants accept a second argument that is a mapping function that is invoked on every element of the typed array:. Additionally, the buf. A Blob encapsulates immutable, raw data that can be safely shared across multiple worker threads. Creates and returns a new Blob containing a subset of this Blob objects data.
The original Blob is not alterered. The data contained by the Blob is copied only when the arrayBuffer or text methods are called. The Buffer class is a global type for dealing with binary data directly. It can be constructed in a variety of ways. Attempting to fill a non-zero length buffer with a zero length buffer triggers a thrown exception. Allocates a new Buffer of size bytes. If fill is undefined , the Buffer will be zero-filled.
If size is larger than buffer. If fill is specified, the allocated Buffer will be initialized by calling buf. If both fill and encoding are specified, the allocated Buffer will be initialized by calling buf. Calling Buffer. The underlying memory for Buffer instances created in this way is not initialized. The contents of the newly created Buffer are unknown and may contain sensitive data.
Use Buffer. The Buffer module pre-allocates an internal Buffer instance of size Buffer. Use of this pre-allocated internal memory pool is a key difference between calling Buffer. Specifically, Buffer. The difference is subtle but can be important when an application requires the additional performance that Buffer.
A zero-length Buffer is created if size is 0. Use buf. When using Buffer. This allows applications to avoid the garbage collection overhead of creating many individually allocated Buffer instances. This approach improves both performance and memory usage by eliminating the need to track and clean up as many individual ArrayBuffer objects.
However, in the case where a developer may need to retain a small chunk of memory from a pool for an indeterminate amount of time, it may be appropriate to create an un-pooled Buffer instance using Buffer. Returns the byte length of a string when encoded using encoding. This is not the same as String. For 'base64' , 'base64url' , and 'hex' , this function assumes valid input. Compares buf1 to buf2 , typically for the purpose of sorting arrays of Buffer instances.
This is equivalent to calling buf1. Returns a new Buffer which is the result of concatenating all the Buffer instances in the list together. If the list has no items, or if the totalLength is 0, then a new zero-length Buffer is returned.
If totalLength is not provided, it is calculated from the Buffer instances in list by adding their lengths. If totalLength is provided, it is coerced to an unsigned integer. If the combined length of the Buffer s in list exceeds totalLength , the result is truncated to totalLength.
Allocates a new Buffer using an array of bytes in the range 0 — Array entries outside that range will be truncated to fit into it. A TypeError will be thrown if array is not an Array or another type appropriate for Buffer. This creates a view of the ArrayBuffer without copying the underlying memory.
For example, when passed a reference to the. The optional byteOffset and length arguments specify a memory range within the arrayBuffer that will be shared by the Buffer. It is important to remember that a backing ArrayBuffer can cover a range of memory that extends beyond the bounds of a TypedArray view. A new Buffer created using the buffer property of a TypedArray may extend beyond the range of the TypedArray :.
A TypeError will be thrown if buffer is not a Buffer or another type appropriate for Buffer. For objects whose valueOf function returns a value not strictly equal to object , returns Buffer. For objects that support Symbol. A TypeError will be thrown if object does not have the mentioned methods or is not of another type appropriate for Buffer. Creates a new Buffer containing string. The encoding parameter identifies the character encoding to be used when converting string into bytes.
A TypeError will be thrown if string is not a string or another type appropriate for Buffer. Returns true if obj is a Buffer , false otherwise. Returns true if encoding is the name of a supported character encoding, or false otherwise.
This is the size in bytes of pre-allocated internal Buffer instances used for pooling. This value may be modified. The index operator [index] can be used to get and set the octet at position index in buf. The values refer to individual bytes, so the legal value range is between 0x00 and 0xFF hex or 0 and decimal. This operator is inherited from Uint8Array , so its behavior on out-of-bounds access is the same as Uint8Array.
In other words, buf[index] returns undefined when index is negative or greater or equal to buf. This ArrayBuffer is not guaranteed to correspond exactly to the original Buffer. See the notes on buf. When setting byteOffset in Buffer. This can cause problems when accessing the underlying ArrayBuffer directly using buf. A common issue when creating a TypedArray object that shares its memory with a Buffer is that in this case one needs to specify the byteOffset correctly:. Compares buf with target and returns a number indicating whether buf comes before, after, or is the same as target in sort order.
Comparison is based on the actual sequence of bytes in each Buffer. The optional targetStart , targetEnd , sourceStart , and sourceEnd arguments can be used to limit the comparison to specific ranges within target and buf respectively. Copies data from a region of buf to a region in target , even if the target memory region overlaps with buf.
TypedArray set performs the same operation, and is available for all TypedArrays, including Node. Creates and returns an iterator of [index, byte] pairs from the contents of buf. Returns true if both buf and otherBuffer have exactly the same bytes, false otherwise. Equivalent to buf. Fills buf with the specified value. If the offset and end are not given, the entire buf will be filled:.
If the final write of a fill operation falls on a multi-byte character, then only the bytes of that character that fit into buf are written:. If value contains invalid characters, it is truncated; if no valid fill data remains, an exception is thrown:. If you want to report an error, or if you want to make a suggestion, do not hesitate to send us an e-mail:. LOG IN. New User?
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