Such legacy VMs, and the new and legacy Flash apps that they run, continue to abound in a staggering number of web clients and hosts today; their security issues routinely star in major annual threat reports and exploit kits worldwide. Through two complementary binary transformation approaches based on in-lined reference monitoring, it is shown that many of these exploits can be thwarted by a third-party principal e.
Detailed case-studies describing proof-of-concept exploits and mitigations for five major vulnerability categories are reported. Article :. DOI: In many cases the String protocol can be smaller than a regular AMF packet. So as to send the data direct to the extension and not over the integrated webserver?
There's probably still no release date? In fact, as of today December , the number of applications and games done in Actionscript 3 are still a small percentage compared to those created in AS 2. Stay tuned. Seems like it will be a major change that I'll have to prepare for I'd like to know when it may come out.
As I'd really like to re-do my network protocol to be all binary. Also--I really think you need to include an encryption option on the server as well. Maybe you can request a public key on the server, much like you can request a random number. Jump to. Who is online Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest. Board index All times are UTC. Style by Arty.
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Assignment can be either by value or by reference. Assignment by value copies the actual value of expression2 and stores it in expression1. Assignment by value is used when expression2 is a primitive value, which means that its data type is either Boolean, Number, int, uint, or String. Assignment by reference stores a reference to expression2 in expression1. Assignment by reference is commonly used with the new operator. The new operator creates an object in memory, and a reference to that location in memory is assigned to a variable.
Note: In ActionScript 3. For example, myXML. You can also use the following syntax to access attributes: myXML. The syntax myXML. To return an attribute with a name that matches an ActionScript reserved word, use the attribute method instead of the operator. Converts expression1 and expression2 to bit unsigned integers, and performs a Boolean AND operation on each bit of the integer parameters.
Floating-point numbers are converted to integers by discarding any digits after the decimal point. The result is a new bit integer. A positive integer is converted to an unsigned hexadecimal value with a maximum value of or 0xFFFFFFFF; a value larger than the maximum has its most significant digits discarded when it is converted so the value is still bit.
A negative number is converted to an unsigned hexadecimal value using the two's complement notation, with a minimum value of or 0x; a number less than the minimum is converted to two's complement with greater precision before the most significant digits are discarded. The result is interpreted as a bit two's complement number, so the result is an integer in the range to Converts expression1 and shiftCount to bit integers, and shifts all the bits in expression1 to the left by the number of places specified by the integer resulting from the conversion of shiftCount.
The bit positions that are emptied as a result of this operation are filled in with 0 and bits shifted off the left end are discarded. Shifting a value left by one position is the equivalent of multiplying it by 2. A floating-point number is converted to an integer by discarding any digits after the decimal point.
If the result is a negative integer, a runtime error occurs if you attempt to assign the result to a variable of type uint. The following trace statement shows that the bits have been pushed three positions to the left:. The following two expressions are equivalent: A. Converts expression to a bit signed integer, and then applies a bitwise one's complement. That is, every bit that is a 0 is set to 1 in the result, and every bit that is a 1 is set to 0 in the result.
The result is a signed bit integer. This operator is also known as the one's complement operator or the bitwise complement operator. For example, the hexadecimal value 0x is represented as this binary number:. The most common use of bitwise operators is for representing flag bits Boolean values packed into 1 bit each. Converts expression1 and expression2 to bit unsigned integers, and places a 1 in each bit position where the corresponding bits of either expression1 or expression2 are 1.
Assigns expression1 the value of expression1 expression2. Converts expression and shiftCount to bit integers, and shifts all the bits in expression to the right by the number of places specified by the integer that results from the conversion of shiftCount. Bits that are shifted off the right end are discarded. To preserve the sign of the original expression, the bits on the left are filled in with 0 if the most significant bit the bit farthest to the left of expression is 0, and filled in with 1 if the most significant bit is 1.
Shifting a value right by one position is the equivalent of dividing by 2 and discarding the remainder. Performs a bitwise right-shift operation and stores the result in expression. The following two statements are equivalent:. The result is interpreted as a bit unsigned integer, so the result is an integer in the range 0 to Performs an unsigned bitwise right-shift operation and stores the result in expression.
Converts expression1 and expression2 to bit unsigned integers, and places a 1 in each bit position where the corresponding bits in expression1 or expression2 , but not both, are 1. Delimits one or more lines of script comments. An expression can be used in place of tagName , attributeName , attributeValue , and content. The brackets operator allows you to access property names that are not accessible with the dot.
Evaluates expression1 , then expression2 , and so on. This operator is primarily used with the for loop statement and is often used with the parentheses operator. Concatenates combines strings. If one expression is a string, all other expressions are converted to strings and concatenated.
If both expressions are numbers, this operator behaves as an addition operator. Note that using concatenation assignment for the text property of a TextField i. Evaluates expression1 , and if the value of expression1 is true , the result is the value of expression2 ; otherwise the result is the value of expression3. Subtracts 1 from the operand. The operand can be a variable, element in an array, or property of an object.
The pre-decrement form of the operator --expression subtracts 1 from expression and returns the result. The post-decrement form of the operator expression-- subtracts 1 from expression and returns the initial value of expression the value prior to the subtraction. Destroys the object property specified by reference ; the result is true if the property does not exist after the operation completes, and false otherwise.
The delete operator returns true if it is called on a nonexistent property or a dynamic property not defined in a class. The delete operator can fail and return false if the reference parameter cannot be deleted. You cannot delete fixed properties or variables that are declared with the var statement. A fixed property is a variable or method defined in a class definition.
The delete operator cannot be used to destroy a property of a class, unless that class is a dynamic class added at runtime. Properties of sealed classes cannot be destroyed using delete. Set the property to null instead. Note: You cannot delete an object, but you can make an object eligible for garbage collection by removing all references to the object. The most common reference to an object is a variable that points to it. You can remove such a reference by setting the variable to null.
The garbage collector removes any object that has no references. The following example deletes the value of an array element, but the value of the length property is not changed:. The following example shows how the returned Boolean from delete can be used as a condition for future code execution. Note that if an item has already been deleted, calling delete on the item again will return false. Deletes the XML elements or attributes specified by reference.
The matching elements or attributes need not be direct children of the XML or XMLList object; they can be lower in the tree for example, grandchildren. The result is an XMLList object, because more than one child element or attribute can match. The order of nodes in the XMLList object returned is the result of a depth-first traversal. For example, consider the following:. Divides expression1 by expression2. The result of the division operation is a double-precision floating-point number.
Accesses class variables and methods, gets and sets object properties, and delimits imported packages or classes. The object returned is an XMLList, because more than one child element or attribute can match. Tests two expressions for equality. The result is true if the expressions are equal.
If the data types of the two operands match, the definition of equal depends on the data type of the operands:. Compares two expressions and determines whether expression1 is greater than expression2 ; if it is, the result is true. If expression1 is less than or equal to expression2 , the result is false. If both operands are of type String, the operands are compared using alphabetical order; all capital letters come before lowercase letters.
Otherwise, operands are first converted to numbers, then compared. Compares two expressions and determines whether expression1 is greater than or equal to expression2 true or expression1 is less than expression2 false. Evaluates whether a property is part of a specific object. To use the in operator, specify a property name as the first operand and an object as the second operand.
If the object you specify contains such a property, the result is true ; otherwise the result is false. If the specified object is an Array object, you can use the in operator to check whether a particular index number is valid.
If you pass an integer as the first operand, the result is true if the index is within the valid range of index numbers, and false otherwise. The following example uses the in operator to show that the numbers 0, 1, and 2 are valid index numbers in the myArray object, but that the number 3 is not.
Adds 1 to an expression. The expression can be a variable, an element in an array, or a property of an object. If expression1 is equal to expression2 , the result is false. Evaluates whether an expression's prototype chain includes the prototype object for function. The instanceof operator is included for backward compatibility with ECMAScript edition 3, and may be useful for advanced programmers who choose to use prototype-based inheritance with constructor functions instead of classes.
To check whether an object is a member of a specific data type, use the is operator. When used with classes, the instanceof operator is similar to the is operator because a class's prototype chain includes all of its superclasses.
Interfaces, however, are not included on prototype chains, so the instanceof operator always results in false when used with interfaces, whereas the is operator results in true if an object belongs to a class that implements the specified interface. Note: The ActionScript is operator is the equivalent of the Java instanceof operator. Evaluates whether an object is compatible with a specific data type, class, or interface.
Use the is operator instead of the instanceof operator for type comparisons. You can also use the is operator to check whether an object implements an interface. Compares two expressions and determines whether expression1 is less than expression2 ; if so, the result is true. If expression1 is greater than or equal to expression2 , the result is false.
Compares two expressions and determines whether expression1 is less than or equal to expression2 ; if it is, the result is true. If expression1 is greater than expression2 , the result is false. Indicates the beginning of a script comment. Returns expression1 if it is false or can be converted to false , and expression2 otherwise. Examples of values that can be converted to false are 0, NaN , null , and undefined. If you use a function call as expression2 , the function is not called if expression1 evaluates to false.
If both operands are of type Boolean, the result is true only if both operands are true , as shown in the following table:. Inverts the Boolean value of a variable or expression. If expression is a variable with the absolute or converted value true , the value of! The following expressions illustrate the result of using the logical NOT! Returns expression1 if it is true or can be converted to true , and expression2 otherwise.
If you use a function call as expression2 , the function is not called if expression1 evaluates to true. If both operands are of type Boolean, the result is true if either or both expressions are true ; the result is false only if both expressions are false , as shown in the following table:. The following example demonstrates how using a function call as the second operand can lead to unexpected results. If the expression on the left of the operator evaluates to true , that result is returned without evaluating the expression on the right the function fx2 is not called.
Calculates the remainder of expression1 divided by expression2. The sign of the modulo result matches the sign of the dividend the first number. Multiplies two numerical expressions. If both expressions are integers, the product is an integer. If either or both expressions are floating-point numbers, the product is a floating-point number. Instantiates a class instance. The new operator can be used with a class or a variable of type Class to create an instance of a class.
The new operator is commonly used with a class object to create an instance of a class. For example, the statement new Sprite creates an instance of the Sprite class. The new operator can also be used to associate a class with an embedded asset, which is an external object such as an image, sound, or font that is compiled into a SWF file.
Each embedded asset is represented by a unique embedded asset class. To access an embedded asset, you must use the new operator to instantiate its associated class. Subsequently, you can call the appropriate methods and properties of the embedded asset class to manipulate the embedded asset. If you prefer to define classes with Function objects instead of the class keyword, you can use the new operator to create objects based on constructor functions.
Do not confuse constructor functions with constructor methods of a class. A constructor function is a Function object that is defined with the function keyword, but that is not part of a class definition. If you use constructor functions to create objects, you must use prototype inheritance instead of class inheritance. Creates a new object and initializes it with the specified name and value property pairs. Using this operator is the same as using the new Object syntax and populating the property pairs using the assignment operator.
The prototype of the newly created object is generically named the Object object. This operator is also used to mark blocks of contiguous code associated with flow control statements for , while , if , else , switch and functions. Performs a grouping operation on one or more parameters, performs sequential evaluation of expressions, or surrounds one or more parameters and passes them as arguments to a function that precedes the parentheses. Usage 1: Controls the order in which the operators execute.
Parentheses override the normal precedence order and cause the expressions within the parentheses to be evaluated first. When parentheses are nested, the contents of the innermost parentheses are evaluated before the contents of the outer ones. Usage 2: Evaluates a series of expressions, separated by commas, in sequence, and returns the result of the final expression.
Usage 3: Surrounds one or more parameters and passes them to the function that precedes the parentheses. The result is an XMLList object. When used before and after characters, indicates that the characters have a literal value and are considered a regular expression RegExp , not a variable, string, or other ActionScript element. Tests two expressions for equality, but does not perform automatic data conversion. The result is true if both expressions, including their data types, are equal. First, comparisons between primitive values and primitive objects that contain the same value return true in ActionScript 3.
In earlier versions, the data type of a primitive value is either Boolean, Number, or String, whereas the data type of a primitive object is always Object rather than Boolean, Number or String. The practical effect of this difference is that the following code results in false in previous versions of ActionScript because the data types of the operands do not match, but the result is true in ActionScript 3.
The strict inequality operator performs the same as the inequality operator except that only the int and uint data types are converted. If expression1 is equal to expression2 , and their data types are equal, the result is false. The strict inequality!
When used before and after characters, indicates that the characters have a literal value and are considered a string, not a variable, numerical value, or other ActionScript element. Used for negating or subtracting. Usage 1: When used for negating, the operator reverses the sign of a numerical expression. Usage 2: When used for subtracting, the operator performs an arithmetic subtraction on two numerical expressions, subtracting expression2 from expression1.
When both expressions are integers, the difference is an integer. When either or both expressions are floating-point numbers, the difference is a floating-point number. The following statement subtracts the floating-point number 1. Assigns expression1 the value of expression1 - expression2. Used for assigning a data type; this operator specifies the variable type, function return type, or function parameter type.
When used in a variable declaration or assignment, this operator specifies the variable's type; when used in a function declaration or definition, this operator specifies the function's return type; when used with a function parameter in a function definition, this operator specifies the variable type expected for that parameter. Type checking always occurs at run time.
However, when the compiler is set to strict mode, all types are also checked at compile time, and errors are generated when there is a mismatch. Mismatches can occur during assignment operations, function calls, and class member dereferencing using the dot. Types that you can use include all native object types, classes and interfaces that you define, and void. The recognized native types are Boolean, Number, int, uint, and String.
All built-in classes are also supported as native types. Active Oldest Votes. Improve this answer. Tyler Egeto Tyler Egeto 5, 3 3 gold badges 18 18 silver badges 28 28 bronze badges. If it is a web based game, to be run in a web browser, and you want to save the data on the users system not on a web server , I can think of two options: If it is OK to require Flash Player 10, you can save and load data to and from local files on the users request, such as a button click, not arbitrary from anywhere in your code and via a standard file dialog.
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